Right to privacy

invasion of privacyprivacy rightsright of privacyprivacyrights to privacybreach of privacyhuman privacyinvaded privacyinvades his privacyinvasion of his privacy
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.wikipedia
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Global surveillance

government surveillanceInternational cooperationmass surveillance
Government agencies, such as the NSA, CIA, R&AW and GCHQ, have engaged in mass, global surveillance.
Its existence, however, was not widely acknowledged by governments and the mainstream media until the global surveillance disclosures by Edward Snowden triggered a debate about the right to privacy in the Digital Age.

Mass surveillance

surveillance statesurveillance societysurveillance
Government agencies, such as the NSA, CIA, R&AW and GCHQ, have engaged in mass, global surveillance. Some current debates around the right to privacy include whether privacy can co-exist with the current capabilities of intelligence agencies to access and analyze many details of an individual's life; whether or not the right to privacy is forfeited as part of the social contract to bolster defense against supposed terrorist threats; and whether threats of terrorism are a valid excuse to spy on the general population.
Reporting based on documents Snowden leaked to various media outlets triggered a debate about civil liberties and the right to privacy in the Digital Age.

Louis Brandeis

BrandeisJustice BrandeisLouis Dembitz Brandeis
In the United States, an article in the December 15, 1890 issue of the Harvard Law Review, written by attorney Samuel D. Warren and future U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Louis Brandeis, entitled "The Right to Privacy", is often cited as the first explicit declaration of a U.S. right to privacy.
Starting in 1890, he helped develop the "right to privacy" concept by writing a Harvard Law Review article of that title, and was thereby credited by legal scholar Roscoe Pound as having accomplished "nothing less than adding a chapter to our law".

Privacy

privatepersonal privacyprivacy rights
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.
In Italy the right to privacy is enshrined in Article 15 of the Constitution, which states:

Freedom of speech

free speechfreedom of expressionfree expression
Under liberal democratic systems, privacy creates a space separate from political life, and allows personal autonomy, while ensuring democratic freedoms of association and expression.
Freedom of speech and expression, therefore, may not be recognized as being absolute, and common limitations or boundaries to freedom of speech relate to libel, slander, obscenity, pornography, sedition, incitement, fighting words, classified information, copyright violation, trade secrets, food labeling, non-disclosure agreements, the right to privacy, dignity, the right to be forgotten, public security, and perjury.

Civil liberties

individual libertypersonal freedomcivil liberty
This right to privacy has been the justification for decisions involving a wide range of civil liberties cases, including Pierce v. Society of Sisters, which invalidated a successful 1922 Oregon initiative requiring compulsory public education, Griswold v. Connecticut, where a right to privacy was first established explicitly, Roe v. Wade, which struck down a Texas abortion law and thus restricted state powers to enforce laws against abortion, and Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down a Texas sodomy law and thus eliminated state powers to enforce laws against sodomy.
Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, and the right to life.

Personality rights

right of publicityimage rightspublicity rights
Personality rights are generally considered to consist of two types of rights: the right of publicity, or to keep one's image and likeness from being commercially exploited without permission or contractual compensation, which is similar (but not identical) to the use of a trademark; and the right to privacy, or the right to be left alone and not have one's personality represented publicly without permission.

Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fourth AmendmentFourthU.S. Const. amend. IV
Although the Constitution does not explicitly include the right to privacy, the Supreme Court has found that the Constitution implicitly grants a right to privacy against governmental intrusion from the First Amendment, Third Amendment, Fourth Amendment, and the Fifth Amendment.
In Katz, the Supreme Court expanded that focus to embrace an individual's right to privacy, and ruled that a search had occurred when the government wiretapped a telephone booth using a microphone attached to the outside of the glass.

Right to be forgotten

Melvin v. Reidallow users to be forgottendata protection laws of Europe
Furthermore, there are concerns about its impact on the right to freedom of expression, its interaction with the right to privacy, and whether creating a right to be forgotten would decrease the quality of the Internet through censorship and a rewriting of history.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Universal Declaration on Human RightsUnited Nations Universal Declaration of Human RightsThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A right to privacy is explicitly stated under Article 12 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
Censorship, the invasion of privacy, and interference of opinions are human rights violations according to the ALA.

Public figure

statesmanpublic figuresstateswoman
The point of view of the press, however, is that the general public have a right to know personal information about those with status as a public figure.
In the context of defamation actions (libel and slander) as well as invasion of privacy, a public figure cannot succeed in a lawsuit on incorrect harmful statements in the United States unless there is proof that the writer or publisher acted with actual malice by knowing the falsity or by reckless disregard for the truth.

Google Ads

AdWordsGoogle AdWordsDoubleClick for Publishers
Also, in some American jurisdictions the use of a person's name as a keyword under Google's AdWords for advertising or trade purposes without the person's consent has raised certain personal privacy concerns.
Ultimately, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that Google AdWords were “not a breach of EU trade mark law, but that the content of some advertisements that are linked by Google keywords may well be in breach depending upon the particular facts of the case.” Additionally, in some American jurisdictions, the use of a person's name as a keyword for advertising or trade purposes without the person's consent has raised Right to Privacy concerns.

Nothing to hide argument

If you aren't doing something wrong then you don't have anything to fearNothing to hide, nothing to fearwe have nothing to hide
First, if individuals have privacy rights, then invoking "nothing to hide" is irrelevant.

MAINWAY

NSA call databaseVerizon subscriberscollection of metadata of phone calls
Separate from the question of whether the database is illegal under FISA, one may ask whether the call detail records are covered by the privacy protection of the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

Government

Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.

Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)

2013 mass surveillance disclosuresglobal surveillance disclosures2013 global surveillance disclosures
Since the global surveillance disclosures of 2013, initiated by ex-NSA employee Edward Snowden, the inalienable human right to privacy has been a subject of international debate.

National Security Agency

NSAArmed Forces Security AgencyNational Computer Security Center
Government agencies, such as the NSA, CIA, R&AW and GCHQ, have engaged in mass, global surveillance. Since the global surveillance disclosures of 2013, initiated by ex-NSA employee Edward Snowden, the inalienable human right to privacy has been a subject of international debate.

Edward Snowden

SnowdenEd SnowdenSnowden Files
Since the global surveillance disclosures of 2013, initiated by ex-NSA employee Edward Snowden, the inalienable human right to privacy has been a subject of international debate.

Central Intelligence Agency

CIAC.I.A.Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Government agencies, such as the NSA, CIA, R&AW and GCHQ, have engaged in mass, global surveillance.

Research and Analysis Wing

RAWR&AWResearch & Analysis Wing
Government agencies, such as the NSA, CIA, R&AW and GCHQ, have engaged in mass, global surveillance.

GCHQ

Government Communications HeadquartersGovernment Code and Cypher SchoolGovernment Code and Cypher School (GC&CS)
Government agencies, such as the NSA, CIA, R&AW and GCHQ, have engaged in mass, global surveillance.

Intelligence agency

intelligence agenciesintelligence serviceintelligence
Some current debates around the right to privacy include whether privacy can co-exist with the current capabilities of intelligence agencies to access and analyze many details of an individual's life; whether or not the right to privacy is forfeited as part of the social contract to bolster defense against supposed terrorist threats; and whether threats of terrorism are a valid excuse to spy on the general population.

Social contract

social contract theorycontractarianismcontractarian
Some current debates around the right to privacy include whether privacy can co-exist with the current capabilities of intelligence agencies to access and analyze many details of an individual's life; whether or not the right to privacy is forfeited as part of the social contract to bolster defense against supposed terrorist threats; and whether threats of terrorism are a valid excuse to spy on the general population.

Amazon (company)

Amazon.comAmazonAmazon.co.uk
Private sector actors can also threaten the right to privacy—particularly technology companies, such as Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, and Yahoo that use and collect personal data.

Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Inc
Private sector actors can also threaten the right to privacy—particularly technology companies, such as Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, and Yahoo that use and collect personal data.