River

riversriverineriparianleft bankfluvialriver flowsstreamlower courseoutletwaterway
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.wikipedia
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Lake

lacustrinefreshwater lakelakes
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

Stream

creekstreamscreeks
Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill.
Long large streams are usually called rivers.

Drainage basin

watershedbasincatchment area
Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle; water generally collects in a river from precipitation through a drainage basin from surface runoff and other sources such as groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (e.g., from glaciers).
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

Fresh water

freshwaterfreshlimnic
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Fresh water includes water in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, and even underground water called groundwater.

Burn (landform)

burnburnsbourne (river)
Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England.
A burn is a watercourse (in size from a large stream to a small river).

Sea

maritimemarineopen sea
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
The remainder (about 0.65% of the whole) form underground reservoirs or various stages of the water cycle, containing the freshwater encountered and used by most terrestrial life: vapor in the air, the clouds it slowly forms, the rain falling from them, and the lakes and rivers spontaneously formed as its waters flow again and again to the sea.

River source

headwatersheadwatersource
A river begins at a source (or more often several sources), follows a path called a course, and ends at a mouth or mouths.
The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river.

Limnology

limnologistlimnologicallimnologists
Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general.
This includes the study of lakes, reservoirs, ponds, rivers, springs, streams, wetlands, and groundwater.

River mouth

mouthmouthsriver's mouth
A river begins at a source (or more often several sources), follows a path called a course, and ends at a mouth or mouths.
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean.

Seafood

seafood productssea foodfood fish
Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, and as a means of disposing of waste.
The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population.

Watercourse

courseriver courseriver's course
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
These include estuaries, rivers, streams, anabranches and canals.

Flood

floodingfloodsflood control
In larger rivers there is often also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel.
Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood.

Floodplain

flood plainfloodplainsflood plains
In larger rivers there is often also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel.
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.

Canyon

gorgegorgescanyons
Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys (depressions) or along plains, and can create canyons or gorges.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.

Stream bed

riverbedstreambedriver bed
The water in a river is usually confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks.
A stream bed or streambed is the channel bottom of a stream or river, the physical confine of the normal water flow.

River delta

deltadeltaicmouth
They also occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment that is carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

Current (stream)

currentcurrentswater current
Likewise, the term downriver (or downstream) describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows.
A current, in a river or stream, is the flow of water influenced by gravity as the water moves downhill to reduce its potential energy.

Surface runoff

runoffagricultural runoffrun-off
Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle; water generally collects in a river from precipitation through a drainage basin from surface runoff and other sources such as groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks (e.g., from glaciers).
Any remaining surface water eventually flows into a receiving water body such as a river, lake, estuary or ocean.

Subterranean river

underground riversubterraneanunderground stream
Subterranean rivers flow underground in caves or caverns.
A subterranean river is a river that runs wholly or partly beneath the ground surface – one where the riverbed does not represent the surface of the Earth (rivers flowing in gorges are not classed as subterranean ).

Oxbow lake

oxbowoxbow lakesox-bow lake
Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong.
An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water.

Border

boundaryinternational borderboundaries
Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, and as a means of disposing of waste.
Rivers: some political borders have been formalized along natural borders formed by rivers. Some examples are: the Niagara River (Canada–USA), the Rio Grande (Mexico–USA), the Rhine (France–Germany), and the Mekong (Thailand–Laos). If a precise line is desired, it is often drawn along the thalweg, the deepest line along the river. In the Hebrew Bible, Moses defined the middle of the river Arnon as the border between Moab and the Israelite tribes settling east of the Jordan . The United States Supreme Court ruled in 1910 that the boundary between the American states of Maryland and West Virginia is the south bank of the Potomac River.

Plain

plainsplanitiallanos
Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys (depressions) or along plains, and can create canyons or gorges.
Alluvial plains, formed over a long period of time by a river depositing sediment on their flood plains or beds, which become alluvial soil. The difference between a flood plain and an alluvial plain is: a flood plain represents areas experiencing flooding fairly regularly in the present or recently, whereas an alluvial plain includes areas where a flood plain is now and used to be, or areas which only experience flooding a few times a century.

Channel (geography)

channelchannelsshipping channel
The water in a river is usually confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks.
A stream channel is the physical confine of a stream (river) consisting of a bed and stream banks.

Alluvial river

alluvialalluvial geomorphic processesalluvial region
Rivers can generally be classified as either alluvial, bedrock, or some mix of the two.
An alluvial river is river in which the bed and banks are made up of mobile sediment and/or soil.

Ephemerality

ephemeralephemeral riverephemera
An intermittent river (or ephemeral river) only flows occasionally and can be dry for several years at a time.
An ephemeral waterbody is a wetland, spring, stream, river, pond or lake that only exists for a short period following precipitation or snowmelt.