Robert E. Lee

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

- Robert E. Lee

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Confederate States Army

The military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states.

Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Private Edwin Francis Jemison, whose image became one of the most famous portraits of the young soldiers of the war
A cartoon from the war, showing the Confederates forcibly drafting a Unionist man into the Confederate army. The Unionist man objects, with the Confederates threatening to lynch him if he does not comply.
An 1861 Confederate recruiting poster from Virginia, urging men to join the Confederate cause and fight off the U.S. Army, which it refers to as a "brutal and desperate foe"
CSA M1857 Napoleon Artillery Piece
General Robert E. Lee, the Confederacy's most famous general
An 1895 illustration showing the uniforms of the Confederate Army contrasted with those of the U.S. Army
A painting of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fighting the U.S. Army at Spotsylvania in 1864
A group of Confederate soldiers-possibly an artillery unit captured at Island No. 10 and taken at POW Camp Douglas (Chicago); photograph possibly by D. F. Brandon
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
A Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903
Jackson McCurtain, Lieutenant Colonel of the First Choctaw Battalion in Oklahoma, CSA
1862 illustration showing Confederates escorting kidnapped African American civilians south into slavery. A similar instance occurred in Pennsylvania when the Army of Northern Virginia invaded it in 1863 to fight the U.S. at Gettysburg.
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves at gunpoint to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers in battle. A similar instance occurred at the first Battle of Bull Run, where slaves were forced by the Confederates to load and fire a cannon at U.S. forces.
An 1864 cartoon lampooning the Confederacy's deliberating on the use of black soldiers, showing them defecting en masse towards U.S. lines if such proposals were adopted.
"Marlboro", an African-American body servant to a white Confederate soldier
Julian Scott's 1873 painting, Surrender of a Confederate Soldier
Corporal of the Artillery division of the Confederate Army
Confederate mortar crew at Warrington, Florida in 1861, across from Fort Pickens
Confederate artillery at Charleston Harbor, 1863
Lt Col. E. V. Nash, 4th Georgia Infantry Doles-Cook Brigade, who was killed in 1864
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<Center>Colonel (Infantry shown)</Center>
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The main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U.S. on April 9, 1865 (officially April 12), and April 18, 1865 (officially April 26).

Seven Days Battles

The Seven Days Battles were a series of seven battles over seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, during the American Civil War.

George B. McClellan and Robert E. Lee, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Seven Days
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
Map of Southeastern Virginia
Map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Seven Days Battles, June 26&ndash;27, 1862
Seven Days Battles, June 30, 1862
Seven Days Battles, July 1, 1862
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Philip St. George Cooke</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Benjamin Huger</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes</center>

Confederate General Robert E. Lee drove the invading Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, away from Richmond and into a retreat down the Virginia Peninsula.

United States Military Academy

United States service academy in West Point, New York.

Secretary of the Army Pete Geren, center, with the U.S. Corps of Cadets senior leadership and Brig. Gen. Michael Linnington, far left, Commandant of the Corps of Cadets, after the congressional retirement review of the Corps of Cadets for Rep. Dave Hobson, center right, and Rep. Jim Saxton, center left, 2008
French map of West Point in 1780
Artillery cadet in 1805, wearing a mixture of commissioned and non-commissioned uniforms prescribed for artillery cadets
West Point, from Phillipstown (1831) engraving by W. J. Bennett showing the original buildings of the United States Military Academy
Thayer monument
Robert E. Lee, American Civil War general who graduated from West Point and later served as its superintendent from 1852 to 1855
West Point Cadet C. Benek by Mathew Brady
Henry Ossian Flipper
United States Military Academy uniform in 1882
Corps of Cadets c. 1870
Class at West Point, 1929
Class of 1980 Cadets Carol A. Young, Gregory Stephens, and Kathryn A. Wildey at West Point, December 1976
First female graduates in 1980
The Corps of Cadets assembled with facemasks for the 2020 Army-Navy game.
Looking north toward the central campus
The Trophy Point Amphitheater hosts cadet ceremonies as well as free summer concerts.
Cadet Chapel
One of the six wings of Washington Hall during lunchtime
Nininger Hall, part of the original Cadet Barracks
West Point Cemetery
The 57th & 58th Superintendents, LTG Franklin L. Hagenbeck (L) & LTG David H. Huntoon (R)
West Point in a New York Central Lines ad
Graduates of the Class of 2008 toss their hats after "class dismissed"
Cadets cross a rope bridge during summer training
Indoor obstacle course
Class of '57 honor memorial on which the honor code is inscribed
Cadet collar and shoulder sleeve insignia
Cadet captains' shoulder sleeve insignia
Cadet color guard on parade
Class of 2012's motto
Rwandan President Paul Kagame visits his son's room during Plebe-Parent Weekend
"Beat Navy" tunnel
A cadet in action during the 2009 Army–Navy lacrosse game
Army men's rugby
2012 West Point class ring
Sedgwick's spurs
2009 Goat-Engineer game
"Walking the area"

Its alumni and students are collectively referred to as "The Long Gray Line," the former include: U.S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Ulysses S. Grant; Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy; Confederate general Robert E. Lee; American poet Edgar Allen Poe; U.S. general George Patton; presidents of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and the Philippines; and 76 Medal of Honor recipients.

Joseph E. Johnston

American career army officer, serving with distinction in the United States Army during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848) and the Seminole Wars.

Johnston in uniform, c. undefined 1862
Portrait by Benjamin Franklin Reinhart (c. 1860)
Johnston's map Reconnoissances [sic.] of Routes from San Antonio de Bexar to El Paso del Norte, 1849
Vicksburg Campaign
The Atlanta Campaign from Dalton to Kennesaw Mountain
Carolinas Campaign
The surrender of Gen. Joe Johnston - Currier & Ives lithograph
Joseph E. Johnston and Robert E. Lee in 1869–1870
Johnston statue in Dalton, Georgia, where he took command of the Army of Tennessee
Johnston statue at the location of the Battle of Bentonville, in North Carolina

Johnston was trained as a civil engineer at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, graduating in the same class as Robert E. Lee.

Maryland campaign

The Maryland campaign (or Antietam campaign) occurred September 4–20, 1862, during the American Civil War.

Union General George B. McClellan and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, the principal commanders of the campaign
Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania (1861-1865)
Southern Virginia, (1861-1865)
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), September 17, 1862
Confederate dead at Antietam
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Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North was repulsed by the Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who moved to intercept Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia and eventually attacked it near Sharpsburg, Maryland.

Battle of Antietam

The Battle of Antietam, by Kurz & Allison (1878), depicting the scene of action at Burnside's Bridge
Lincoln with McClellan and staff at the Grove Farm after the battle. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Battlefield of Antietam, situation September 15 to 16, 1862
Overview of the Battle of Antietam
Assaults by the I Corps, 5:30 to 7:30 a.m.
Dead Confederate soldiers from Starke's Louisiana Brigade, on the Hagerstown Turnpike, north of the Dunker Church. Photograph by Alexander Gardner.
Assaults by the XII Corps, 7:30 to 9:00 a.m.
The Dunker Church after September 17, 1862. Here, both Union and Confederate dead lie together on the field.
Assaults by the XII and II Corps, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.
Sunken Road
The Bloody Lane in 2005
Confederate dead lie in the "Bloody Lane" after the Battle of Antietam, 1862.
Assaults by the IX Corps, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
Confederate dead gathered for burial after the battle. Photograph by Alexander Gardner.
Photograph by Alexander Gardner of Lincoln and McClellan near the Antietam battlefield, October 3, 1862
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{{center|Charge of the 51st New York and 51st Pennsylvania across Burnside's Bridge, by Edwin Forbes}}
{{center|Battle of Antietam by Kurz and Allison}}
{{center|Confederate guns on the hill above poured fire into the Union ranks at Burnside's bridge. Photo taken just after the Battle of Antietam, 1862.}}
Union positions below the Confederates at Burnside Bridge
Burnside Bridge in 2012
{{center|Confederate soldiers on the Antietam battlefield as they fell inside the fence on the Hagerstown road, September 1862 by Alexander Gardner}}
{{center|Harper's Weekly drawing of dead soldiers on Antietam battlefield, based on Gardner photograph}}
{{center|Confederate horses lay dead and artillery caissons destroyed on Antietam battlefield<ref>Site identified by Frassanito, pp. 168–70.</ref>}}
{{center|Dead on Antietam battlefield<ref>Site identified by Robert Kalasky, "Military Images" Volume XX, Number 6 May–June 1999, pp. 24–29.</ref>}}
{{center|Confederate dead at Bloody Lane, looking east from the north bank. Alexander Gardner photograph.}}
{{center|Confederate dead at Bloody Lane, looking northeast from the south bank. Alexander Gardner photograph.<ref>The Union soldiers looking on were likely members of the 130th Pennsylvania, who were assigned burial detail</ref>}}
{{center|"Confederate soldier who after being wounded had evidently dragged himself to a little ravine on the hillside where he died". Photograph by Alexander Gardner.}}
{{center|Federal burial party, by Alexander Gardner<ref>Site identified by Frassanito, pp. 144–47.</ref>}}
{{center|Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield}}
{{center|"A Lonely Grave"—Federal grave at Antietam, by Alexander Gardner<ref>Site identified by Frassanito, pp. 171–74.</ref>}}
{{center|Antietam Battlefield photograph, by Alexander Gardner<ref>Original description claimed "Battlefield of Antietam on the Day of the Battle" September 17, 1862; however, see Frassanito, pp. 70–73.</ref>}}
{{center|"Artillery Hell", by James Hope (Dunker Church at the far left)}}
{{center|"A Fateful Turn"—Late morning looking east toward the Roulette Farm", by James Hope}}
{{center|"The Aftermath at Bloody Lane", by James Hope}}
{{center|"Wasted Gallantry", by James Hope}}
{{center|"A Crucial Delay", by James Hope}}
{{center|The Lutheran Church just east of Sharpsburg marks the extent of the Union offensive during the Battle of Antietam, 1862.}}

The Battle of Antietam, or Battle of Sharpsburg particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.

General officers in the Confederate States Army

The general officers of the Confederate States Army (CSA) were the senior military leaders of the Confederacy during the American Civil War of 1861–1865.

Confederate States Army general officers collar badge
Robert E. Lee, the best known CSA general. Lee is shown with the insignia of a Confederate colonel, which he chose to wear throughout the war.
P.G.T. Beauregard, the Confederacy's first brigadier general, later the fifth-ranking general
Maj. Gen. Benjamin Huger, CSA
Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, CSA
Gen. Samuel Cooper, CSA
Joseph Reid Anderson in a CSA brigadier general's uniform.

By war's end the Confederacy had at least 383 different men who held this rank in the PACS, and three in the ACSA: Samuel Cooper, Robert E. Lee, and Joseph E. Johnston.

Peninsula campaign

Major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Federal Battery # 4 with 13 in seacoast mortars, Model 1861, during the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, 1862
Movements and battles in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, up through the start of the Battle of Seven Pines
Siege of Yorktown
Engagement Near Hanover Court-House, Virginia
The Chickahominy - Sumner's Upper Bridge: 1862 watercolor by William McIlvaine
Battle of Seven Pines
Brig. Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher at the Battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. James Longstreet</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>

McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of the more aggressive General Robert E. Lee turned the subsequent Seven Days Battles into a humiliating Union defeat.

Second Battle of Bull Run

Fought August 28–30, 1862, in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War.

Second Battle of Bull Run, fought Augt. 29th 1862, 1860s lithograph by Currier and Ives
Northeastern Virginia (1862)
Second Bull Run Campaign, August 17–30, 1862 (Additional map).
Battlefield of Manassas (right side)
Action at Brawner's Farm, August 28
August 29, 10 a.m.: Sigel's attack
August 29, 12 noon: Longstreet arrives, Porter stalls
August 29, 3 p.m.: Grover's attack
August 29, 5–7 p.m., Kearny's attack, Hood vs. Hatch
Stonewall Jackson's cannons on Henry House Hill
August 30, 3 p.m., Porter's attack
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
August 30, 4:30 p.m.: Union defense of Chinn Ridge
August 30, 5 p.m.: Final Confederate attacks, beginning of the Union retreat
Bridge crossed by the Union troops retreating to Centreville
Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862
Union troops retreat after the battle
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<center>Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862</center>
<center>Virginia, Bull Run. Ruins of Stone Bridge, 1862</center>
<center>A group of men stand near the Manassas Railroad Junction railroad tracks in 1862 with a train in the background</center>
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
<center>Men sit near the Manassas Junction railroad in 1862</center>
<center>Picking up debris of trains after Pope's retreat</center>
<center>Bull Run, Va. Dedication of the battle monument; Judge Abram B. Olin of the District of Columbia Supreme Court, who delivered the address, stands by the rail.</center>
Battle map drafted by Sneden, Robert Knox, with notes on Union and Confederate strengths, casualties, done in pen and ink and water color

It was the culmination of the Northern Virginia Campaign waged by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Union Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia, and a battle of much larger scale and numbers than the First Battle of Bull Run (or First Manassas) fought on July 21, 1861 on the same ground.

American Civil War

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.

In 1863, Confederate General Robert E. Lee's incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.