Lee in March 1864
Second Battle of Bull Run, fought Augt. 29th 1862, 1860s lithograph by Currier and Ives
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Northeastern Virginia (1862)
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Second Bull Run Campaign, August 17–30, 1862 (Additional map).
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Battlefield of Manassas (right side)
Lee in uniform, 1863
Action at Brawner's Farm, August 28
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
August 29, 10 a.m.: Sigel's attack
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
August 29, 12 noon: Longstreet arrives, Porter stalls
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
August 29, 3 p.m.: Grover's attack
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
August 29, 5–7 p.m., Kearny's attack, Hood vs. Hatch
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Stonewall Jackson's cannons on Henry House Hill
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
August 30, 3 p.m., Porter's attack
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
August 30, 4:30 p.m.: Union defense of Chinn Ridge
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
August 30, 5 p.m.: Final Confederate attacks, beginning of the Union retreat
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
Bridge crossed by the Union troops retreating to Centreville
Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862
Union troops retreat after the battle
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
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Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
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Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
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Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
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Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
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Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
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Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
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University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University
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<center>Soldiers stand next to a completely destroyed Henry House in 1862</center>
<center>Virginia, Bull Run. Ruins of Stone Bridge, 1862</center>
<center>A group of men stand near the Manassas Railroad Junction railroad tracks in 1862 with a train in the background</center>
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
<center>A group of men near Manassas Railroad Junction in 1862</center>
<center>Men sit near the Manassas Junction railroad in 1862</center>
<center>Picking up debris of trains after Pope's retreat</center>
<center>Bull Run, Va. Dedication of the battle monument; Judge Abram B. Olin of the District of Columbia Supreme Court, who delivered the address, stands by the rail.</center>
Battle map drafted by Sneden, Robert Knox, with notes on Union and Confederate strengths, casualties, done in pen and ink and water color

It was the culmination of the Northern Virginia Campaign waged by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia against Union Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia, and a battle of much larger scale and numbers than the First Battle of Bull Run (or First Manassas) fought on July 21, 1861 on the same ground.

- Second Battle of Bull Run

Lee then overcame Union forces under John Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run in August.

- Robert E. Lee
Lee in March 1864

19 related topics

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General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862

Stonewall Jackson

General Jackson at Winchester, Virginia 1862
Jackson's Mill
First lieutenant Thomas J. Jackson sometime after West Point graduation in the late 1840s
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Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson in 1855
House owned by Stonewall Jackson in Lexington
The Colonel Lewis T. Moore house, which served as the Winchester Headquarters of Lt. Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson (photo 2007)
General Jackson by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau
Historical marker marking the end of Gen. Stonewall Jackson's pursuit of the Federals after the Battle of McDowell, May 12, 1862
Jackson and Little Sorrel, painting by David Bendann
Montage of Thomas J. Jackson and staff
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The plantation office building where Stonewall Jackson died in Guinea Station, Virginia
In 1864 Jackson was memorialized on the Confederate $500 banknote.
Prayer in "Stonewall" Jackson's camp, 1866
A portrait of Stonewall Jackson (1864, J. W. King) in the National Portrait Gallery
General Lee's Last Visit to Stonewall Jackson's Grave, painting by Louis Eckhardt, 1872
The Stonewall Brigade, Dedicated to the Memory of Stonewall Jackson, the Immortal Southern Hero, and His Brave Veterans, Sheet music, 1863
Confederate Loan from March 2, 1863, Vignette with Jackson
Stonewall Jackson with the flag of the Confederate States in art in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Davis, Lee, and Jackson on Stone Mountain
The Thomas Jonathan Jackson sculpture in downtown Charlottesville, Virginia
Statue of Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson in downtown Clarksburg, West Virginia
Bust of Jackson at the Washington-Wilkes Historical Museum
Stonewall Jackson statue in Richmond, Virginia being removed on July 1, 2020

Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) served as a Confederate general (1861–1863) during the American Civil War, and became one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee.

During the Northern Virginia Campaign that summer, Jackson's troops captured and destroyed an important supply depot for General John Pope's Army of Virginia, and then withstood repeated assaults from Pope's troops at the Second Battle of Bull Run.

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin

American Civil War

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.

In 1863, Confederate General Robert E. Lee's incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.

The Northern Virginia Campaign, which included the Second Battle of Bull Run, ended in yet another victory for the South.

The Battle of Antietam, by Kurz & Allison (1878), depicting the scene of action at Burnside's Bridge

Battle of Antietam

The Battle of Antietam, by Kurz & Allison (1878), depicting the scene of action at Burnside's Bridge
Lincoln with McClellan and staff at the Grove Farm after the battle. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Battlefield of Antietam, situation September 15 to 16, 1862
Overview of the Battle of Antietam
Assaults by the I Corps, 5:30 to 7:30 a.m.
Dead Confederate soldiers from Starke's Louisiana Brigade, on the Hagerstown Turnpike, north of the Dunker Church. Photograph by Alexander Gardner.
Assaults by the XII Corps, 7:30 to 9:00 a.m.
The Dunker Church after September 17, 1862. Here, both Union and Confederate dead lie together on the field.
Assaults by the XII and II Corps, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.
Sunken Road
The Bloody Lane in 2005
Confederate dead lie in the "Bloody Lane" after the Battle of Antietam, 1862.
Assaults by the IX Corps, 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
Confederate dead gathered for burial after the battle. Photograph by Alexander Gardner.
Photograph by Alexander Gardner of Lincoln and McClellan near the Antietam battlefield, October 3, 1862
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{{center|Charge of the 51st New York and 51st Pennsylvania across Burnside's Bridge, by Edwin Forbes}}
{{center|Battle of Antietam by Kurz and Allison}}
{{center|Confederate guns on the hill above poured fire into the Union ranks at Burnside's bridge. Photo taken just after the Battle of Antietam, 1862.}}
Union positions below the Confederates at Burnside Bridge
Burnside Bridge in 2012
{{center|Confederate soldiers on the Antietam battlefield as they fell inside the fence on the Hagerstown road, September 1862 by Alexander Gardner}}
{{center|Harper's Weekly drawing of dead soldiers on Antietam battlefield, based on Gardner photograph}}
{{center|Confederate horses lay dead and artillery caissons destroyed on Antietam battlefield<ref>Site identified by Frassanito, pp. 168–70.</ref>}}
{{center|Dead on Antietam battlefield<ref>Site identified by Robert Kalasky, "Military Images" Volume XX, Number 6 May–June 1999, pp. 24–29.</ref>}}
{{center|Confederate dead at Bloody Lane, looking east from the north bank. Alexander Gardner photograph.}}
{{center|Confederate dead at Bloody Lane, looking northeast from the south bank. Alexander Gardner photograph.<ref>The Union soldiers looking on were likely members of the 130th Pennsylvania, who were assigned burial detail</ref>}}
{{center|"Confederate soldier who after being wounded had evidently dragged himself to a little ravine on the hillside where he died". Photograph by Alexander Gardner.}}
{{center|Federal burial party, by Alexander Gardner<ref>Site identified by Frassanito, pp. 144–47.</ref>}}
{{center|Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield}}
{{center|"A Lonely Grave"—Federal grave at Antietam, by Alexander Gardner<ref>Site identified by Frassanito, pp. 171–74.</ref>}}
{{center|Antietam Battlefield photograph, by Alexander Gardner<ref>Original description claimed "Battlefield of Antietam on the Day of the Battle" September 17, 1862; however, see Frassanito, pp. 70–73.</ref>}}
{{center|"Artillery Hell", by James Hope (Dunker Church at the far left)}}
{{center|"A Fateful Turn"—Late morning looking east toward the Roulette Farm", by James Hope}}
{{center|"The Aftermath at Bloody Lane", by James Hope}}
{{center|"Wasted Gallantry", by James Hope}}
{{center|"A Crucial Delay", by James Hope}}
{{center|The Lutheran Church just east of Sharpsburg marks the extent of the Union offensive during the Battle of Antietam, 1862.}}

The Battle of Antietam, or Battle of Sharpsburg particularly in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac near Sharpsburg, Maryland and Antietam Creek.

Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia—about 55,000 men —entered the state of Maryland on September 3, following their victory at Second Bull Run on August 30.

James Longstreet

Antebellum portrait of Longstreet
Sketch of Longstreet as a Confederate
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
Longstreet circa 1862
A map of the Battle of Fredericksburg
Longstreet at Gettysburg c. undefined 1900
Gettysburg, July 2
Pickett's Charge, July 3
Longstreet's Left Wing assaults, mid-day September 20
Carte de Visite portrait of Longstreet
James Longstreet after the war
James Longstreet after the war
James Longstreet in later life (1896), affecting the sideburns of his opponent at Fredericksburg and Knoxville
Longstreet's grave
Equestrian statue of General Longstreet on his horse Hero in Pitzer Woods at Gettysburg National Military Park

James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse".

Longstreet led a devastating counterattack that routed the Union army at Second Bull Run in August.

A. P. Hill

Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War.

Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War.

General A.P. Hill
Appomattox, A. P. Hill's sword
Portrait of Hill by William Ludwell Sheppard, 1898

After the start of the American Civil War, he gained early fame as the commander of the "Light Division" in the Seven Days Battles and became one of Stonewall Jackson's ablest subordinates, distinguishing himself in the 1862 battles of Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg.

Following Jackson's death in May 1863 at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Hill was promoted to lieutenant general and commanded the Third Corps of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, which he led in the Gettysburg Campaign and the fall campaigns of 1863.

Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, 1861–1865

Battle of Gettysburg

Fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.

Fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.

Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, 1861–1865
The Gettysburg Campaign, 1863
The Battlefield of Gettysburg, 1863
This 1863 oval-shaped map depicts the Gettysburg Battlefield during July 1–3, 1863, showing troop and artillery positions and movements, relief hachures, drainage, roads, railroads, and houses with the names of residents at the time of the Battle of Gettysburg.
This November 1862 Harper's Magazine illustration shows Confiderate Army troops escorting captured African American civilians south into slavery. En route to Gettysburg, the Army of Northern Virginia kidnapped approximately 40 black civilians and sent them south into slavery.
Overview map of the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg
Marker commemorating the first shot fired at the Battle of Gettysburg at 7:30 am on July 1, 1863 by Lt. Marcellus Jones
Robert E. Lee's plan for July 2, 1863, the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg
Overview map of the second day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 2, 1863
Union Army breastworks on Culp's Hill, 1863
Overview map of the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863
The high water mark on Cemetery Ridge with the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument commemorating the 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment at right and the Copse of Trees to the left, August 2005
"The Harvest of Death": Union dead on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, photographed July 5 or July 6, 1863, by Timothy H. O'Sullivan
John L. Burns, veteran of the War of 1812, civilian who fought at the Battle of Gettysburg with Union troops, standing with bayoneted musket. Mathew Brady's National Photographic Portrait Galleries, photographer. From the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress
Gettysburg Campaign (July 5 – July 14, 1863)
On November 19, 1863, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, considered one of the best-known speeches in American history. A crowd of citizens and soldiers surround Lincoln (with a red arrow pointing to his location in photo)
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Gettysburg National Cemetery, July 2003
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The 1936 Battle of Gettysburg half dollar
Gettysburg Centennial Commemorative issue of 1963

In the battle, Union Major General George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, halting Lee's invasion of the North.

Prior to Gettysburg, Robert E. Lee had established a reputation as an almost invincible general, achieving stunning victories against superior numbers—although usually at the cost of high casualties to his army—during the Seven Days, the Northern Virginia Campaign (including the Second Battle of Bull Run), Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville.

Union General George B. McClellan and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, the principal commanders of the campaign

Maryland campaign

The Maryland campaign (or Antietam campaign) occurred September 4–20, 1862, during the American Civil War.

The Maryland campaign (or Antietam campaign) occurred September 4–20, 1862, during the American Civil War.

Union General George B. McClellan and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, the principal commanders of the campaign
Northern Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania (1861-1865)
Southern Virginia, (1861-1865)
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
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Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg), September 17, 1862
Confederate dead at Antietam
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Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North was repulsed by the Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who moved to intercept Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia and eventually attacked it near Sharpsburg, Maryland.

Lee then conducted the northern Virginia campaign in which he outmaneuvered and defeated Maj. Gen. John Pope and his Army of Virginia, most significantly at the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas).

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign

Peninsula campaign

Major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

Major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.

George B. McClellan and Joseph E. Johnston, respective commanders of the Union and Confederate armies in the Peninsula campaign
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia
Peninsula campaign, map of Southeastern Virginia (additional map)
Federal Battery # 4 with 13 in seacoast mortars, Model 1861, during the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, 1862
Movements and battles in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, up through the start of the Battle of Seven Pines
Siege of Yorktown
Engagement Near Hanover Court-House, Virginia
The Chickahominy - Sumner's Upper Bridge: 1862 watercolor by William McIlvaine
Battle of Seven Pines
Brig. Gen. Thomas Francis Meagher at the Battle of Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862
Seven Days Battles: map of events (left side)
<center>Brig. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes</center>
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<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin</center>

McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of the more aggressive General Robert E. Lee turned the subsequent Seven Days Battles into a humiliating Union defeat.

Lincoln later ordered the army to return to the Washington, D.C., area to support Maj. Gen. John Pope's army in the northern Virginia campaign and the Second Battle of Bull Run.

J. E. B. Stuart

United States Army officer from Virginia who became a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War.

United States Army officer from Virginia who became a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War.

Laurel Hill Farm overview, 2017
A young Stuart
Stonewall Jackson assigned Stuart to cavalry.
CSA Cavalry General J.E.B. Stuart
Stuart's hat, sword and LeMat Revolver (Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, VA)
Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863
Battle of Brandy Station, June 9, 1863
Stuart's ride (shown with a red dotted line) during the Gettysburg Campaign, June 3 – July 3, 1863
Bristoe Campaign
The 1864 Overland Campaign, including the Battle of Yellow Tavern
"Dorsey...save your men".
Stuart's gravesite after the war, with temporary marker
Gravesite of Jeb and Flora Stuart, Hollywood Cemetery
M3A1 Stuart tank
Southern Troopers Song, Dedicated to Gen'l. J. E. B. Stuart and his gallant Soldiers, Sheet music, Danville, Virginia, c. 1864

He was known to his friends as "Jeb,” from the initials of his given names. Stuart was a cavalry commander known for his mastery of reconnaissance and the use of cavalry in support of offensive operations. While he cultivated a cavalier image (red-lined gray cape, the yellow waist sash of a regular cavalry officer, hat cocked to the side with an ostrich plume, red flower in his lapel, often sporting cologne), his serious work made him the trusted eyes and ears of Robert E. Lee's army and inspired Southern morale.

At the Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas), Stuart's cavalry followed the massive assault by Longstreet's infantry against Pope's army, protecting its flank with artillery batteries.

Battleflag made from wool, 1863

Army of Northern Virginia

The primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

The primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

Battleflag made from wool, 1863
Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard
Gen. J. E. Johnston
Gustavus Woodson Smith
General Robert E. Lee, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia
Battleflag made out of silk from November 1861
Battleflag made of wool, 1862
Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia at the time of the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862)
Organization of the Army of Northern Virginia at the time of the Battle of the Wilderness (May 5–7, 1864)
Montage of Robert E. Lee and his staff.<ref>starting at left center going up-left to right: 1) Lt.Col. W.H. Taylor; 2) Lt.Col. R.G. Cole; 3) Lt.Col. C.S. Venable; 4)Brig Gen W.H. Stevens; 5) Lt.Col. Charles Marshall; 6) Lt.Col. J.L. Conley; 7) Lt.Col. B.G. Baldwin; 8) Surgeon Lafayette Guild; 9) Maj H. Young; 10) Brig Gen W.H. Pendelton; 11) Lt.Col. W. E. Peyton; 12) Major Giles B. Coke.</ref>
Montage of Thomas J. Jackson and staff.
James Longstreet
A. P. Hill
Richard H Anderson
Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [Cavalry Corps]
Wade Hampton [Cavalry Corps]

Robert E. Lee's biographer, Douglas S. Freeman, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1, 1862.

The Army's losses before and following the Battle of Second Manassas needed to be replaced before the Maryland Campaign could commence.