Robert Falcon Scott

Robert Falcon Scott in 1905
Scott, aged 13
Scott as a young man
Shackleton, Scott, and Wilson before their march south during the Discovery expedition, 2 November 1902
Discovery hut at Hut Point
Scott pictured by Daniel A. Wehrschmidt, 1905
Scott's and Amundsen's routes to the South Pole
Scott writing his journal in Scott's Hut at Cape Evans, winter 1911
Terra Nova held up in pack ice, 13 December 1910
Scott's party at the South Pole: Oates, Bowers, Scott, Wilson and Evans
Cairn over the tent containing the bodies of Edward Adrian Wilson, Henry Robertson Bowers and Robert Falcon Scott.
Observation Hill memorial cross, erected in 1913
Scott statue at Portsmouth Historic Dockyard, sculpted by Kathleen Scott
Robert Scott Statue in Christchurch, New Zealand, sculpted by his widow Kathleen Scott
Memorial window in Binton Church, Warwickshire, one of four panels. This one depicts the cairn erected over the site of Scott's last tent

Royal Navy officer and explorer who led two expeditions to the Antarctic regions: the Discovery expedition of 1901–1904 and the ill-fated Terra Nova expedition of 1910–1913.

- Robert Falcon Scott

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Amundsen's South Pole expedition

Led by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen.

Roald Amundsen, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel and Oscar Wisting (l–r) at "Polheim", the tent erected at the South Pole on 16 December 1911. The top flag is the Flag of Norway; the bottom is marked "Fram". Photograph by Olav Bjaaland.
Gjøa, the small sloop in which Amundsen and his crew conquered the Northwest Passage, 1903–06
Fridtjof Nansen, whose Arctic drift of 1893–96 inspired Amundsen
Roald Amundsen, the expedition's leader
Olav Bjaaland dressed for winter travel: "Not an outfit that cut a dash by its appearance, but it was warm and strong"
Fram under sail
The base at Framheim, February 1911
One of the men with a dog team and sledge on the Barrier in early 1911
Sverre Hassel in the oil store at Framheim during the winter of 1911
Amundsen's route to the pole, Oct–Dec 1911. The depots marked at 80, 81 and 82° were laid in the first season, Feb–March 1911. Shackleton's 1908–09 route, as followed by Scott, is to the right.
Men and dogs at the 85° South depot, on the way to the pole, 15 November 1911
The Japanese Antarctic Expedition's ship Kainan Maru in the Bay of Whales, January 1912
Clements Markham, the distinguished British geographer, was a harsh critic of Amundsen's change of plan and expressed private doubts about his success.
Map showing the polar journeys of the Scott's Terra Nova expedition (green) and Amundsen's expedition (red) to reach the South Pole
Remains of Amundsen's last ship, Maud, in Cambridge Bay

He and four others arrived at the pole on 14 December 1911, five weeks ahead of a British party led by Robert Falcon Scott as part of the Terra Nova Expedition.

Hut Point Peninsula

Long, narrow peninsula from 3 to 5 km wide and 24 km long, projecting south-west from the slopes of Mount Erebus on Ross Island, Antarctica.

Edward Wilson's map of Hut Point Peninsula, circa 1910
George Vince's Cross

The British National Antarctic Expedition (1901–04) under Robert Falcon Scott built its hut on Hut Point, a small point lying 1.5 km north-east of Cape Armitage, the southern headland of the peninsula.

Clements Markham

English geographer, explorer and writer.

, Markham's first ship
Markham as a naval cadet in 1844
A modern photograph of the graves discovered at Beechey Island in 1850
Old print of Arequipa, Peru, with Mount Misti in the background
Cinchona plant (photographed in 2002 at a Hawaiian plantation)
Sir Robert Napier, Abyssinian campaign commander
and in the Arctic
Clements Markham at the time of his election to the Royal Geographical Society
Markham as President of the Royal Geographical Society
Discovery moored in 1902
Markham initially supported—but later turned against—Ernest Shackleton
Robert Falcon Scott, who remained Markham's protégé throughout his polar career
Markham in old age. Originally painted by George Henry in 1913 and of which a photogravure was made by Emery Walker. It includes a statuette of a polar explorer on the table and a painting of a cinchona plant on the wall.
Bust of Markham by F. W. Pomeroy

In the latter capacity he was mainly responsible for organising the British National Antarctic Expedition of 1901–1904, and for launching the polar career of Robert Falcon Scott.

South Pole

[[Image:Pole-south.gif|thumb|upright=1.4|1. South Geographic Pole

The Geographic South Pole is marked by the stake on the right.
NASA image showing Antarctica and the South Pole in 2005
The Ceremonial South Pole in 1998.
The Ceremonial South Pole as of February 2008.
Garmin GPS receiver showing 90 Deg South – the South Pole
Argentinian soldiers saluting the flag after erecting the pole in 1965
Amundsen's party at the South Pole, December 1911. From left to right: Amundsen, Hanssen, Hassel and Wisting (photo by fifth member Bjaaland).

The sign records the respective dates that Roald Amundsen and Robert F. Scott reached the Pole, followed by a short quotation from each man, and gives the elevation as "9,301 FT.".

Antarctic Plateau

Large area of East Antarctica which extends over a diameter of about 1000 km, and includes the region of the geographic South Pole and the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.

The high, flat, and cold environment of the Antarctic Plateau at Dome C
Surface of Antarctic Plateau, at 150E, 77S

This plateau was first sighted in 1903 during the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic, which was led by Robert Falcon Scott.

Ernest Shackleton

Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic.

Sir Ernest Shackleton
Blue plaque marking the home of Ernest Shackleton at 12 Westwood Hill, Sydenham, London Borough of Lewisham
Shackleton in 1901, at the age of 27
in Antarctic waters
Robert Falcon Scott
Shackleton's wife, Emily Dorman
South Pole party: Frank Wild, Shackleton, Eric Marshall and Jameson Adams
Captioned "The South Pole", caricature of Shackleton in Vanity Fair, 6 October 1909
Shackleton embarked on an extensive lecture tour in which he talked not only about his own polar journeys but also those of Scott and Roald Amundsen
Shackleton after the loss of Endurance
Launching the from the shore of Elephant Island, 24 April 1916
"All Safe, All Well", allegedly depicting Shackleton's return to Elephant Island, August 1916. A photograph of the departure of the James Caird in April was doctored by photographer Frank Hurley to create this image.
Shackleton's grave at Grytviken
Shackleton statue by C.S. Jagger outside the Royal Geographical Society
Amundsen, Shackleton and Peary in 1913

Shackleton's first experience of the polar regions was as third officer on Captain Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition of 1901–1904, from which he was sent home early on health grounds, after he and his companions Scott and Edward Adrian Wilson set a new southern record by marching to latitude 82°S.

Terra Nova Expedition

Expedition to Antarctica which took place between 1910 and 1913.

Edward Adrian Wilson, Robert Falcon Scott, Lawrence Oates, Henry Robertson Bowers and Edgar Evans at the South Pole
Robert Falcon Scott in 1905
Tabloid medical chest for Scott's Antarctic Expedition, 1910
The Oxo food company was one of many commercial sponsors of the expedition.
Grotto in an iceberg, 5 January 1911, photographed by Herbert Ponting
Inside Scott's Hut at Cape Evans
Scott's Discovery hut at Hut Point, used as a shelter and stores depot
Borchgrevink's 1899 hut at Cape Adare photographed in 1992. Campbell's Northern Party camped nearby in 1911–1912.
Robert Forde cooking seal fry on the blubber stove at Cape Roberts
Emperor penguins
The collected eggs
Route taken to the South Pole showing supply stops and significant events. Scott was found frozen to death with Wilson and Bowers, south of the One Ton Supply depot
Scott, Bowers, Wilson, and PO Evans at Polheim, Amundsen's base at the South Pole
Grave of the Southern party
Observation Hill, overlooking Hut Point, where the Terra Nova memorial cross was erected in January 1913

Led by Captain Robert Falcon Scott, the expedition had various scientific and geographical objectives.

Nimrod Expedition

The first of three successful expeditions to the Antarctic led by Ernest Shackleton.

Jameson Adams, Frank Wild and Eric Marshall (from left to right) plant the Union Jack at their southernmost position, 88° 23', on 9 January 1909. The photograph was taken by expedition leader Ernest Shackleton.
Scottish industrialist Sir William Beardmore, later Lord Invernairn
The expedition's ship Nimrod departing for the South Pole
Edgeworth David, who headed the scientific team
Douglas Mawson, a late addition to the scientific team
Robert Falcon Scott
Inside the Cape Royds Hut, winter 1908. Included in the picture are Shackleton (left background), Armytage (Standing background), Adams (smoking curved pipe), Wild (working on the sledge) and Joyce (extreme right, foreground). A poster advertising ladies' corsets hangs on the wall.
Mount Erebus
On the return journey. The party reach a depot on the Great Ice Barrier
Wild, Shackleton, Marshall and Adams aboard Nimrod after their southern journey
(l. to r.) Mackay, Edgeworth David, and Mawson at the Southern Magnetic Pole, 17 January 1909
Sir Ernest Shackleton: "What Nansen is to the North, Shackleton is to the South"—Roald Amundsen

Its ship, Nimrod, was less than half of the size of Robert Falcon Scott's 1901–1904 expedition ship Discovery, and Shackleton's crew lacked relevant experience.

Royal Geographical Society

Learned society and professional body for geography based in the United Kingdom.

Lowther Lodge, Royal Geographical Society (with IBG) headquarters, designed by Richard Norman Shaw
2012 Poster for exhibition in the glass Pavilion on centenary of Scott's final expedition to the South Pole
Chartered geographer accreditation seal
A representation of the historical emblem of the Royal Geographical Society

It has been a key associate and supporter of many notable explorers and expeditions, including those of Darwin, Livingstone, Stanley, Scott, Shackleton, Hunt and Hillary.

Discovery Expedition

The first official British exploration of the Antarctic regions since the voyage of James Clark Ross sixty years earlier .

The expedition ship RRS Discovery in the Antarctic alongside the Great Ice Barrier, now known as the Ross Ice Shelf
Sir James Clark Ross, discoverer of the Ross Sea, the Ross Ice Shelf and McMurdo Sound
Captain Robert Falcon Scott, appointed leader of the Discovery Expedition
Ernest Shackleton, Third Officer on the Discovery
Royal Doulton bone china plate from the expedition, marked ""DISCOVERY" ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION 1901" around a penguin. Brought back by C Reginald Ford.
The ship's bell of S.S. Discovery
General view of the huts
Shackleton, Scott and Wilson on 3 February 1903, on their return from the attempt to reach the South Pole
A modern photograph of the Discovery's old anchorage in Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Sound, alongside the Hut Point hut in the right background
Emperor penguins. The colony at Cape Crozier had been discovered by a party led by Charles Royds, in October 1902.
Drawing of two emperor penguins with chicks by Wilson (Sept. 1903)
The Dry Valleys in the western mountains of Victoria Land, discovered during the expedition's western journey.
The Vince memorial cross, erected on the Hut Point promontory

It launched the Antarctic careers of many who would become leading figures in the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, including Robert Falcon Scott who led the expedition, Ernest Shackleton, Edward Wilson, Frank Wild, Tom Crean and William Lashly.