Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury

Lord SalisburyThe Marquess of SalisburyMarquess of SalisburySalisburyRobert Gascoyne-CecilRobert Cecil, 3rd Marquess of SalisburyRobert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of SalisburyRobert CecilThe 3rd Marquess of SalisburyViscount Cranborne
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before the death of his elder brother in 1865, Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until his father died in April 1868, and then the Marquess of Salisbury, was a British statesman, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.wikipedia
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James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury

The Marquess of SalisburyViscount Cranborne2nd Marquess of Salisbury
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before the death of his elder brother in 1865, Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until his father died in April 1868, and then the Marquess of Salisbury, was a British statesman, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years. Lord Robert Cecil was born at Hatfield House, the third son of The 2nd Marquess of Salisbury and Frances Mary, née Gascoyne.
He was the father of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and grandfather of Arthur Balfour, who also served as Prime Minister.

Conservative Party (UK)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
A member of the Conservative Party, he was the last Prime Minister to head his full administration from the House of Lords. He entered the House of Commons as a Conservative on 22 August 1853, as MP for Stamford in Lincolnshire.
In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington (later the 8th Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade.

Arthur Balfour

BalfourLord BalfourA.J. Balfour
The Liberals, however, lost the 1895 general election, and Salisbury once again became Prime Minister, leading Britain to war against the Boers, and the Unionists to another electoral victory in 1900 before relinquishing the premiership to his nephew Arthur Balfour.
From 1891 he led the Conservative Party in the House of Commons, serving under his uncle, Lord Salisbury, whose government won large majorities in 1895 and 1900.

1892 United Kingdom general election

18921892 general election1892 election
He remained as Prime Minister until Gladstone's Liberals formed a government with the support of the Irish Nationalists, despite the Unionists gaining the largest number of votes and seats at the 1892 general election.
It saw the Conservatives, led by Lord Salisbury, win the greatest number of seats, but not enough for an overall majority as William Ewart Gladstone's Liberals won many more seats than in the 1886 general election.

1895 United Kingdom general election

18951895 general election1895 election
The Liberals, however, lost the 1895 general election, and Salisbury once again became Prime Minister, leading Britain to war against the Boers, and the Unionists to another electoral victory in 1900 before relinquishing the premiership to his nephew Arthur Balfour.
It was won by the Conservatives led by Lord Salisbury who formed an alliance with the Liberal Unionist Party and had a large majority over the Liberals, led by Lord Rosebery.

Reform Act 1867

Second Reform ActRepresentation of the People Act 1867Reform Act of 1867
Lord Robert Cecil was first elected to the House of Commons in 1854 and served as Secretary of State for India in Lord Derby's Conservative government from 1866 until his resignation in 1867 over its introduction of Benjamin Disraeli's Reform Bill that extended the suffrage to working-class men.
However, wealthy Conservative MP Lord Cranborne resigned his government ministry in disgust at the bill's introduction.

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Prime MinisterBritish Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Great Britain
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), styled Lord Robert Cecil before the death of his elder brother in 1865, Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until his father died in April 1868, and then the Marquess of Salisbury, was a British statesman, serving as Prime Minister three times for a total of over thirteen years.
Since 1721, every head of the Sovereign's government – with one exception in the 18th century (William Pitt the Elder) and one in the 19th (Lord Salisbury) – has been First Lord of the Treasury.

1900 United Kingdom general election

19001900 general electiongeneral election of 1900
The Liberals, however, lost the 1895 general election, and Salisbury once again became Prime Minister, leading Britain to war against the Boers, and the Unionists to another electoral victory in 1900 before relinquishing the premiership to his nephew Arthur Balfour.
The Conservative Party, led by Lord Salisbury with their Liberal Unionist allies, secured a large majority of 130 seats, despite securing only 5.6% more votes than Henry Campbell-Bannerman's Liberals.

1886 United Kingdom general election

18861886 general election1886 election
When Gladstone came out in favour of Home Rule for Ireland, Salisbury opposed him and formed an alliance with the breakaway Liberal Unionists, winning the subsequent general election.
It resulted in a major reversal of the results of the 1885 election as the Conservatives, led by Lord Salisbury, were joined in an electoral pact with the breakaway Unionist wing of the Liberals

Liberal Unionist Party

Liberal UnionistLiberal UnionistsUnionist
When Gladstone came out in favour of Home Rule for Ireland, Salisbury opposed him and formed an alliance with the breakaway Liberal Unionists, winning the subsequent general election.
The leading Liberal Unionists were invited to join the Conservative Lord Salisbury's government.

Paul Smith (historian)

Paul Smith
Paul Smith characterises his personality as "deeply neurotic, depressive, agitated, introverted, fearful of change and loss of control, and self-effacing but capable of extraordinary competitiveness."
In 1972 Smith edited a collection of Lord Salisbury's articles that he had written for the Quarterly Review.

Hatfield House

HatfieldHatfield PalaceCroft Manor-Lara Croft Fiction Franchise
Lord Robert Cecil was born at Hatfield House, the third son of The 2nd Marquess of Salisbury and Frances Mary, née Gascoyne.
Cecil's descendant, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, was three times prime minister during the closing years of Queen Victoria's reign.

Secretary of State for India

Secretary of State for India and BurmaSecretary of StateIndia Secretary
Lord Robert Cecil was first elected to the House of Commons in 1854 and served as Secretary of State for India in Lord Derby's Conservative government from 1866 until his resignation in 1867 over its introduction of Benjamin Disraeli's Reform Bill that extended the suffrage to working-class men. In 1866 Lord Robert, now Viscount Cranborne after the death of his older brother, entered the third government of Lord Derby as Secretary of State for India.

Liberal Party (UK)

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
He became Prime Minister in June 1885 when the Liberal leader William Ewart Gladstone resigned, and held the office until January 1886.
The result was a catastrophic split in the Liberal Party, and heavy defeat in the 1886 election at the hands of Lord Salisbury, who was supported by the breakaway Liberal Unionist Party.

Stamford (UK Parliament constituency)

StamfordStamford (seat 1/2)Stamford (UK Parliament list of constituencies)
He entered the House of Commons as a Conservative on 22 August 1853, as MP for Stamford in Lincolnshire.
As the Marquess of Salisbury he was the leading figure in the Conservative Party from the death of Disraeli in 1881 until he retired as Prime Minister in 1902.

Marquess of Salisbury

Marquis of SalisburyViscount CranborneMarquesses of Salisbury
In 1866 Lord Robert, now Viscount Cranborne after the death of his older brother, entered the third government of Lord Derby as Secretary of State for India.
Most of the holders of the title have been prominent in British political life over the last two centuries, particularly the 3rd Marquess, who served three times as Prime Minister in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Benjamin Disraeli

DisraeliLord BeaconsfieldBenjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield
Lord Robert Cecil was first elected to the House of Commons in 1854 and served as Secretary of State for India in Lord Derby's Conservative government from 1866 until his resignation in 1867 over its introduction of Benjamin Disraeli's Reform Bill that extended the suffrage to working-class men.
Among the conspirators were Lord Robert Cecil, a young Conservative MP who would a quarter century later become Prime Minister as Lord Salisbury; he wrote that having Disraeli as leader in the Commons decreased the Conservatives' chance of holding office.

Irish Home Rule movement

Irish Home RuleHome RuleHome Rule Bill
When Gladstone came out in favour of Home Rule for Ireland, Salisbury opposed him and formed an alliance with the breakaway Liberal Unionists, winning the subsequent general election.
They allied with the Lord Salisbury's Conservatives until 1914 on the issue of Home Rule.

Congress of Berlin

Berlin CongressBerlin AgreementBerlin Congress of 1878
In 1874, when Disraeli formed an administration, Salisbury returned as Secretary of State for India, and, in 1878, was appointed foreign secretary, and played a leading part in the Congress of Berlin, despite his doubts over Disraeli's pro-Ottoman policy.
Negotiations between Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula Andrássy and British Foreign Secretary Marquess of Salisbury had already 'ended on 6 June by Britain agreeing to all the Austrian proposals relative to Bosnia-Herzegovina about to come before the congress while Austria would support British demands'.

William Ewart Gladstone

GladstoneWilliam GladstoneW. E. Gladstone
He became Prime Minister in June 1885 when the Liberal leader William Ewart Gladstone resigned, and held the office until January 1886.
In 1886 Gladstone's party allied with Irish Nationalists to defeat Lord Salisbury's government.

Henry Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon

Lord CarnarvonThe Earl of CarnarvonEarl of Carnarvon
Cranborne studied Baxter's statistics and on 21 February he met Lord Carnarvon, who wrote in his diary: "He is firmly convinced now that Disraeli has played us false, that he is attempting to hustle us into his measure, that Lord Derby is in his hands and that the present form which the question has now assumed has been long planned by him".
Later that year, he resigned (along with Lord Cranborne and Jonathan Peel) in protest against Benjamin Disraeli's Reform Bill to enfranchise the working classes.

Splendid isolation

formed no permanent military alliances
His policy rejected entangling alliances–which at the time and ever since has been called "splendid isolation."
Splendid isolation is the term used at the time for the 19th-century British diplomatic practice of avoiding permanent alliances, particularly under the governments of Lord Salisbury between 1885 and 1902.

Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby

Lord DerbyEarl of DerbyLord Stanley
Lord Robert Cecil was first elected to the House of Commons in 1854 and served as Secretary of State for India in Lord Derby's Conservative government from 1866 until his resignation in 1867 over its introduction of Benjamin Disraeli's Reform Bill that extended the suffrage to working-class men. In 1866 Lord Robert, now Viscount Cranborne after the death of his older brother, entered the third government of Lord Derby as Secretary of State for India.
This administration was particularly notable for the passage of the Reform Act 1867, which greatly expanded the suffrage but which provoked the resignation of three cabinet ministers including the Secretary for India and three-time future Prime Minister, Lord Cranborne (later Lord Salisbury).

Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh

Stafford NorthcoteSir Stafford NorthcoteSir Stafford Northcote, Bt
After the Conservatives lost the 1880 general election and Disraeli's death the year after, Salisbury emerged as Conservative leader in the House of Lords, with Sir Stafford Northcote leading the party in the Commons.
His temper as leader was, however, too gentle to satisfy the more ardent spirits among his own followers, and party cabals (in which Lord Randolph Churchill, who had made a dead set at the "old gang", took a leading part) led to Northcote's elevation to the Lords in 1885, when Lord Salisbury became prime minister.

William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley

William CecilLord BurghleySir William Cecil
He was a patrilineal descendant of Lord Burghley and The 1st Earl of Salisbury, chief ministers of Elizabeth I.
One of the latter branch, Robert Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (1830–1903), served three times as Prime Minister under Queen Victoria and her son, King Edward VII of England.