Robert H. Goddard

Robert GoddardRobert Hutchings GoddardDr. Robert H. GoddardGoddardA Method of Reaching Extreme AltitudesGoddard, Robert Hutchingsdenied in errorDr. R.H. GoddardGoddard 1935 A-Series RocketGoddard's rockets
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.wikipedia
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Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

TsiolkovskyKonstantin TsiolkovskiKonstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky
Years after his death, at the dawn of the Space Age, Goddard came to be recognized as one of the founding fathers of modern rocketry, along with Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, and Hermann Oberth.
Along with the French Robert Esnault-Pelterie, the German Hermann Oberth and the American Robert H. Goddard, he is considered to be one of the founding fathers of modern rocketry and astronautics.

Goddard Space Flight Center

GSFCNASA Goddard Space Flight CenterNASA Goddard
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center was named in Goddard's honor in 1959.
It is one of ten major NASA field centers, named in recognition of American rocket propulsion pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard.

Hermann Oberth

OberthOberth, HermannHerman Oberth
Years after his death, at the dawn of the Space Age, Goddard came to be recognized as one of the founding fathers of modern rocketry, along with Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, and Hermann Oberth.
He is considered one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics, along with the French Robert Esnault-Pelterie, the Russian Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and the American Robert Goddard.

Robert Esnault-Pelterie

R.E.P.Esnault-PelteriePrix d'Astronautique
Years after his death, at the dawn of the Space Age, Goddard came to be recognized as one of the founding fathers of modern rocketry, along with Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, and Hermann Oberth.
He is referred to as being one of the founders of modern rocketry and astronautics, along with the Russian Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the German Hermann Oberth, and the American Robert H. Goddard.

International Air & Space Hall of Fame

International Aerospace Hall of FameInternational Air and Space Hall of Fame
He was also inducted into the International Aerospace Hall of Fame in 1966, and the International Space Hall of Fame in 1976.

Spaceflight

space travelspace flightspace transport
He not only recognized the potential of rockets for atmospheric research, ballistic missiles and space travel but was the first to scientifically study, design and construct the rockets needed to implement those ideas.
Spaceflight became an engineering possibility with the work of Robert H. Goddard's publication in 1919 of his paper A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes.

Rocket

rocketsrocketryrocket scientist
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
In 1920, Professor Robert Goddard of Clark University published proposed improvements to rocket technology in A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes.

The War of the Worlds

War of the Worldsnovelnovel of the same name
He became interested in space when he read H. G. Wells' science fiction classic The War of the Worlds at 16 years old.
The novel has even influenced the work of scientists, notably Robert H. Goddard, who, inspired by the book, invented both the liquid fuelled rocket and multistage rocket, which resulted in the Apollo 11 Moon landing 71 years later.

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

WPIWorcester PolyWorcester Polytechnic
Goddard enrolled at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1904.
It served for a time as a site for Robert Goddard's rocket fuel research as the building is relatively isolated from other buildings on campus and Dr. Goddard's research had previously led to explosions on campus.

Liquid rocket propellant

liquid propellantliquid rocket propellantsliquid
The second, described a rocket fueled with a solid fuel (explosive material) or with liquid propellants (gasoline and liquid nitrous oxide).
On March 16, 1926, Robert H. Goddard used liquid oxygen (LOX) and gasoline as rocket fuels for his first partially successful liquid-propellant rocket launch.

Clarence N. Hickman

Clarence HickmanC. N. HickmanClarence Nichols Hickman
Goddard, during his tenure at Clark University, and working at Mount Wilson Observatory for security reasons, designed the tube-fired rocket for military use during World War I. He and his co-worker, Dr. Clarence N. Hickman successfully demonstrated his rocket to the U.S. Army Signal Corps at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, on November 6, 1918, using two music stands for a launch platform.
Clarence Nichols Hickman (August 16, 1889 – May 7, 1981) was a physicist who worked on rockets with Robert Goddard.

South High Community School

South High School
As his health improved, Goddard continued his formal schooling as a 19-year-old sophomore at South High Community School in Worcester in 1901.

Worcester, Massachusetts

WorcesterWorcester, MAWorcester, Mass.
Goddard was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, to Nahum Danford Goddard (1859–1928) and Fannie Louise Hoyt (1864–1920).

Ion thruster

ion engineion propulsionion drive
From 1916 to 1917, Goddard built and tested the first known experimental ion thrusters, which he thought might be used for propulsion in the near-vacuum conditions of outer space.
However, the first private document to consider electric propulsion is Robert H. Goddard's handwritten notebook in an entry dated September 6, 1906.

Bazooka

M20 Super Bazookabazookas3.5-inch bazooka
The launcher concept became the precursor to the bazooka.
The rocket-powered weapon was the brainchild of Dr. Robert H. Goddard as a side project (under Army contract) of his work on rocket propulsion.

Clark University

ClarkClark CollegeClark (MA)
Goddard, during his tenure at Clark University, and working at Mount Wilson Observatory for security reasons, designed the tube-fired rocket for military use during World War I. He and his co-worker, Dr. Clarence N. Hickman successfully demonstrated his rocket to the U.S. Army Signal Corps at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, on November 6, 1918, using two music stands for a launch platform. Goddard received his B.S. degree in physics from Worcester Polytechnic in 1908, and after serving there for a year as an instructor in physics, he began his graduate studies at Clark University in Worcester in the fall of 1909.
In the 1920s Robert Goddard, a pioneer of rocketry, considered one of the founders of space and missile technology, was chairman of the Physics Department.

Tsiolkovsky rocket equation

rocket equationTsiolkovsky equationderivation of the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation
In effect he had independently developed the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation published a decade earlier in Russia.
Robert Goddard in America independently developed the equation in 1912 when he began his research to improve rocket engines for possible space flight.

De Laval nozzle

convergent-divergent nozzlenozzlede Laval
At this point he applied de Laval nozzles, which were generally used with steam turbine engines, and these greatly improved efficiency.
This principle was first used in a rocket engine by Robert Goddard.

Atmospheric entry

atmospheric reentryreentryre-entry
In that same letter, Goddard clearly describes the concept of the ablative heat shield, suggesting the landing apparatus be covered with "layers of a very infusible hard substance with layers of a poor heat conductor between" designed to erode in the same way as the surface of a meteor.
The concept of the ablative heat shield was described as early as 1920 by Robert Goddard: "In the case of meteors, which enter the atmosphere with speeds as high as 30 mi per second, the interior of the meteors remains cold, and the erosion is due, to a large extent, to chipping or cracking of the suddenly heated surface. For this reason, if the outer surface of the apparatus were to consist of layers of a very infusible hard substance with layers of a poor heat conductor between, the surface would not be eroded to any considerable extent, especially as the velocity of the apparatus would not be nearly so great as that of the average meteor."

Liquid oxygen

LOXoxygencondense oxygen
It had a cylindrical combustion chamber, using impinging jets to mix and atomize liquid oxygen and gasoline.
It was used as the oxidizer in the first liquid-fueled rocket invented in 1926 by Robert H. Goddard an application which has continued to the present.

Liquid-propellant rocket

liquidliquid-fuel rocketbipropellant
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket. Goddard launched the world's first liquid-fueled (gasoline and liquid oxygen) rocket on March 16, 1926, in Auburn, Massachusetts.
The first flight of a liquid-propellant rocket took place on March 16, 1926 at Auburn, Massachusetts, when American professor Dr. Robert H. Goddard launched a vehicle using liquid oxygen and gasoline as propellants.

Spacecraft propulsion

propulsionrocket propulsionspace propulsion
From 1916 to 1917, Goddard built and tested the first known experimental ion thrusters, which he thought might be used for propulsion in the near-vacuum conditions of outer space.
The idea of electric propulsion dates back to 1906, when Robert Goddard considered the possibility in his personal notebook.

Space Age

space-ageadvent of spaceflight technologyspace
He has been called the man who ushered in the Space Age.
Some even considered that the Space Age started in March 1926, when American rocket pioneer Robert H. Goddard launched the world's first liquid fuel rocket, though his rocket did not reach the outer space.

V-2 rocket

V-2V2V2 rocket
A gyroscope mounted on gimbals electrically controlled steering vanes in the exhaust, similar to the system used by the German V-2 over 10 years later.
At the time, Germany was highly interested in American physicist Robert H. Goddard's research.

Auburn, Massachusetts

AuburnAuburn Public LibraryAuburn, Mass.
Goddard launched the world's first liquid-fueled (gasoline and liquid oxygen) rocket on March 16, 1926, in Auburn, Massachusetts.
Robert H. Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket from Pakachoag Hill, on his aunt Effe Ward's farm, in Auburn on March 16, 1926.