Robert Hooke

HookeDr Robert HookeHooke, RobertHooke MedalRobert Hook
Robert Hooke FRS (28 July 1635 – 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.wikipedia
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Micrographia

micrographic
In 1665 he inspired the use of microscopes for scientific exploration with his book, Micrographia.
With Observations and Inquiries Thereupon.' is a historically significant book by Robert Hooke about his observations through various lenses.

Gregorian telescope

GregorianGregorian focusGregorian form
He built some of the earliest Gregorian telescopes and observed the rotations of Mars and Jupiter.
The Gregorian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope designed by Scottish mathematician and astronomer James Gregory in the 17th century, and first built in 1673 by Robert Hooke.

Royal Society

FRSFellow of the Royal SocietyRoyal Society of London
At one time he was simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society, a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry, and Surveyor to the City of London after the Great Fire of London (in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire).
Robert Hooke, however, disputed this, writing that:

Thomas Willis

Dr. Thomas WillisDr Thomas WillisSir Thomas Willis
Here he was employed as an assistant to Thomas Willis and to Robert Boyle, for whom he built the vacuum pumps used in Boyle's gas law experiments, and conducted the experiments themselves.
He employed Robert Hooke as an assistant, in the period 1656-8; this probably was another Fell family connection, since Samuel Fell knew Hooke's father in Freshwater, Isle of Wight.

Freshwater, Isle of Wight

FreshwaterFreshwater BayCliff End, Freshwater
Robert Hooke was born in 1635 in Freshwater on the Isle of Wight to John Hooke and Cecily Gyles.
It was the birthplace of physicist Robert Hooke and was the home of Poet Laureate Alfred Lord Tennyson.

Robert Boyle

BoyleBoyle, Robert[Robert] Boyle
Here he was employed as an assistant to Thomas Willis and to Robert Boyle, for whom he built the vacuum pumps used in Boyle's gas law experiments, and conducted the experiments themselves.
Reading in 1657 of Otto von Guericke's air pump, he set himself with the assistance of Robert Hooke to devise improvements in its construction, and with the result, the "machina Boyleana" or "Pneumatical Engine", finished in 1659, he began a series of experiments on the properties of air.

Richard Busby

Dr. BusbyBusbyDoctor Busby
Hooke was an apt student, so although he went to London to take up an apprenticeship, and studied briefly with Samuel Cowper and Peter Lely, he was soon able to enter Westminster School in London, under Dr. Richard Busby.
Among the more illustrious of his pupils were Christopher Wren, Robert Hooke, Robert South, John Dryden, John Locke, Matthew Prior, Thomas Millington and Francis Atterbury.

Gresham Professor of Geometry

Professor of GeometryGresham Professors of GeometryGeometry
At one time he was simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society, a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry, and Surveyor to the City of London after the Great Fire of London (in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire).

Christ Church, Oxford

Christ ChurchChrist Church CollegeStudent
In 1653, Hooke (who had also undertaken a course of twenty lessons on the organ) secured a chorister's place at Christ Church, Oxford.
Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers (more than any other Oxbridge college), King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll (Alice in Wonderland) and W.H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, and scientist Robert Hooke.

Allan Chapman (historian)

Allan ChapmanDr Allan ChapmanChapman, Allan
Allan Chapman has characterised him as "England's Leonardo".
He has written many books including biographies such as England's Leonardo on Robert Hooke.

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
He also came near to an experimental proof that gravity follows an inverse square law, and first hypothesised that such a relation governs the motions of the planets, an idea which was developed by Isaac Newton, and formed part of a dispute between the two which caused Newton to try to erase Hooke's legacy.
When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas, Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate.

John Wilkins

WilkinsWilkinBishop Wilkins
Hooke studied at Wadham College, Oxford during the Protectorate where he became one of a tightly knit group of ardent Royalists led by John Wilkins.
Robert Hooke was gradually recruited into the Wilkins group: he arrived at Christ Church, Oxford in 1653, working his way to an education, became assistant to Willis, became known to Wilkins (possibly via Richard Busby) as a technician, and by 1658 was working with Boyle.

Westminster School

WestminsterWestminster CollegeCollege Building, Westminster School
Hooke was an apt student, so although he went to London to take up an apprenticeship, and studied briefly with Samuel Cowper and Peter Lely, he was soon able to enter Westminster School in London, under Dr. Richard Busby.
The Robert Hooke Science Centre is further away, just off Smith Square.

Inverse-square law

inverse square lawinverse squareinverse-square
He also came near to an experimental proof that gravity follows an inverse square law, and first hypothesised that such a relation governs the motions of the planets, an idea which was developed by Isaac Newton, and formed part of a dispute between the two which caused Newton to try to erase Hooke's legacy.
Robert Hooke and Giovanni Alfonso Borelli both expounded gravitation in 1666 as an attractive force (Hooke’s lecture "On gravity" at the Royal Society, London, on 21 March; Borelli's "Theory of the Planets", published later in 1666 ).

Wadham College, Oxford

Wadham CollegeWadham Wadham College
Hooke studied at Wadham College, Oxford during the Protectorate where he became one of a tightly knit group of ardent Royalists led by John Wilkins.
Wren was one of a brilliant group of experimental scientists at Oxford in the 1650s, the Oxford Philosophical Club, which included Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke.

Hooke's law

spring constantforce constantelasticity tensor
In 1660, Hooke discovered the law of elasticity which bears his name and which describes the linear variation of tension with extension in an elastic spring.
The law is named after 17th-century British physicist Robert Hooke.

Peter Lely

Sir Peter LelyLelyLely, Peter
Hooke was an apt student, so although he went to London to take up an apprenticeship, and studied briefly with Samuel Cowper and Peter Lely, he was soon able to enter Westminster School in London, under Dr. Richard Busby.
The young Robert Hooke came to London to follow an apprenticeship with Lely before being given a place at Westminster School by Richard Busby.

Pendulum

pendulumssimple pendulumpendula
There were also experiments on the subject of gravity, the falling of objects, the weighing of bodies and measuring of barometric pressure at different heights, and pendulums up to 200 ft.
The English scientist Robert Hooke studied the conical pendulum around 1666, consisting of a pendulum that is free to swing in two dimensions, with the bob rotating in a circle or ellipse.

Anchor escapement

deadbeat escapementdeadbeatpocket watch
His dispute with Oldenburg about whether Oldenburg had leaked or passed on details of Hooke's watch escapement to others is another well-known example.
The anchor escapement was probably invented by British scientist Robert Hooke around 1657, although some references credit clockmaker William Clement, who popularized the anchor in his invention of the longcase or grandfather clock around 1680.

Boyle's law

compressedBoyleBoyle’s Gas Law
It has been suggested that Hooke probably made the observations and may well have developed the mathematics of Boyle's law.
Robert Boyle acknowledged his debts to Towneley and Power in: R. Boyle, A Defence of the Doctrine Touching the Spring and Weight of the Air, … (London, England: Thomas Robinson, 1662). Available on-line at: Spain's La Biblioteca Virtual de Patrimonio Bibliográfico. On pages 50, 55-56, and 64, Boyle cited experiments by Towneley and Power showing that air expands as the ambient pressure decreases. On p. 63, Boyle acknowledged Towneley's help in interpreting Boyle's data from experiments relating the pressure to the volume of a quantity of air. (Also, on p. 64, Boyle acknowledged that Lord Brouncker had also investigated the same subject.) Robert Boyle confirmed their discovery through experiments and published the results. According to Robert Gunther and other authorities, it was Boyle's assistant, Robert Hooke, who built the experimental apparatus. Boyle's law is based on experiments with air, which he considered to be a fluid of particles at rest in between small invisible springs. At that time, air was still seen as one of the four elements, but Boyle disagreed. Boyle's interest was probably to understand air as an essential element of life; for example, he published works on the growth of plants without air. Boyle used a closed J-shaped tube and after pouring mercury from one side he forced the air on the other side to contract under the pressure of mercury. After repeating the experiment several times and using different amounts of mercury he found that under controlled conditions, the pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume occupied by it. The French physicist Edme Mariotte (1620–1684) discovered the same law independently of Boyle in 1679, but Boyle had already published it in 1662. Mariotte did, however, discover that air volume changes with temperature. Thus this law is sometimes referred to as Mariotte's law or the Boyle–Mariotte law. Later, in 1687 in the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Newton showed mathematically that in an elastic fluid consisting of particles at rest, between which are repulsive forces inversely proportional to their distance, the density would be directly proportional to the pressure, but this mathematical treatise is not the physical explanation for the observed relationship. Instead of a static theory a kinetic theory is needed, which was provided two centuries later by Maxwell and Boltzmann.

Thomas Tompion

Tompion
Hooke interacted with noted craftsmen such as Thomas Tompion, the clockmaker, and Christopher Cocks (Cox), an instrument maker.
This is of interest as Tompion's most important early patron was the scientist Robert Hooke who may well have known the Knibb family, as both were in Oxford.

Great Fire of London

Great FireGreat Fire of 1666The Great Fire
At one time he was simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society, a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry, and Surveyor to the City of London after the Great Fire of London (in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire). His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666, and eventually becoming ill and party to jealous intellectual disputes (the last may have contributed to his relative historical obscurity).
Apart from Wren and Evelyn, it is known that Robert Hooke, Valentine Knight, and Richard Newcourt proposed rebuilding plans.

Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher WrenWrenWren-Gibbs
Hooke himself characterised his Oxford days as the foundation of his lifelong passion for science, and the friends he made there were of paramount importance to him throughout his career, particularly Christopher Wren.
Robert Hooke, who often saw Wren two or three times every week, had, as he recorded in his diary, never even heard of her, and was not to meet her till six weeks after the marriage.

Cymatics

nodal patternscymaticwave phenomena
On 8 July 1680, Hooke observed the nodal patterns associated with the modes of vibration of glass plates.
On July 8, 1680, Robert Hooke was able to see the nodal patterns associated with the modes of vibration of glass plates.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Hooke coined the term cell for describing biological organisms, the term being suggested by the resemblance of plant cells to cells of a honeycomb.
Cells were discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665, who named them for their resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery.