Robert McNamara

Robert S. McNamaraMcNamaraSecretary of Defense McNamaraDefense Secretary Robert MacNamaraMcNamara, RobertSecretary of Defense Robert MacNamarathe Secretary of Defense
Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth United States Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.wikipedia
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Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in Vietnamwar
He played a major role in escalating the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War.
Every year onward there was significant build-up despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.

University of California, Berkeley

BerkeleyUC BerkeleyUniversity of California
He was born in San Francisco, California, graduated from UC Berkeley and Harvard Business School and served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II.
Both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from Berkeley's ROTC program, earning B.A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, respectively.

Policy analysis

policy analystpolicy analystsanalyst
McNamara was responsible for the institution of systems analysis in public policy, which developed into the discipline known today as policy analysis.
Policy analysis has its roots in systems analysis, an approach used by United States Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in the 1960s.

Defense Intelligence Agency

DIAU.S. Defense Intelligence AgencyDefence Intelligence Agency
McNamara consolidated intelligence and logistics functions of the Pentagon into two centralized agencies: the Defense Intelligence Agency and the Defense Supply Agency.
Established in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, DIA was involved in U.S. intelligence efforts throughout the Cold War and rapidly expanded, both in size and scope, after the September 11 attacks.

World Bank

The World BankIBRDWB
In 1968, McNamara resigned as Secretary of Defense to become President of the World Bank.
These changes can be attributed to Robert McNamara, who was appointed to the presidency in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson.

Systems analysis

analysissystems analystSystem analysis
McNamara was responsible for the institution of systems analysis in public policy, which developed into the discipline known today as policy analysis.
The discipline of what is today known as policy analysis originated from the application of system analysis when it was first instituted by United States Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara.

John F. Kennedy

KennedyPresident KennedyJFK
Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth United States Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
Kennedy approved Defense Secretary Robert McNamara's controversial decision to award the contract for the F-111 TFX (Tactical Fighter Experimental) fighter-bomber to General Dynamics (the choice of the civilian Defense department) over Boeing (the choice of the military).

Whiz Kids (Ford)

Whiz KidsFord Motor Company "Whiz Kidsthe group at Ford Motor Company
These "Whiz Kids" helped reform Ford with modern planning, organization, and management control systems.
Robert S. McNamara, who eventually became the president of Ford. He then became the Secretary of Defense and the President of the World Bank.

Henry Ford II

Henry FordFord, Henry IIHenry Ford 2d
After the war, Henry Ford II hired McNamara and a group of other Army Air Force veterans to work for Ford Motor Company.
Two of them, Arjay Miller and Robert McNamara, went on to serve as presidents of Ford themselves.

Defense Logistics Agency

DLADefense Reutilization Management OperationsDefense Supply Agency
McNamara consolidated intelligence and logistics functions of the Pentagon into two centralized agencies: the Defense Intelligence Agency and the Defense Supply Agency.
When Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara assumed office in the spring of 1961, the first generation of single managers were handling roughly 39,000 items by procedures with which the Services had become familiar.

Curtis LeMay

Curtis E. LeMayGeneral Curtis LeMayGeneral Curtis E. LeMay
One of his major responsibilities was the analysis of U.S. bombers' efficiency and effectiveness, especially the B-29 forces commanded by Major General Curtis LeMay in India, China, and the Mariana Islands.
In a discussion of a report into high abort rates in bomber missions during World War II, which Robert McNamara suspected was because of pilot fear of death, Robert McNamara described LeMay's character:

Ford Falcon (North America)

Ford FalconFalconFord Falcon Sprint
He was a force behind the Ford Falcon sedan, introduced in the fall of 1959—a small, simple and inexpensive-to-produce counter to the large, expensive vehicles prominent in the late 1950s.
Robert McNamara, a Ford executive who became Ford's president briefly before being offered the job of U.S. Defense Secretary, is regarded by many as "the father of the Falcon".

United States Secretary of Defense

Secretary of DefenseDefense SecretaryU.S. Secretary of Defense
Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth United States Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
The longest-serving Secretary of Defense is Robert McNamara, who served for a total of 2,595 days.

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon JohnsonJohnsonPresident Johnson
Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth United States Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.

Lifeguard (automobile safety)

LifeguardLifeguard option package
McNamara placed a high emphasis on safety: the Lifeguard options package introduced the seat belt (a novelty at the time) and a dished steering wheel, which helped to prevent the driver from being impaled on the steering column.
Spurred by Robert McNamara, the Cornell University crash research program and the first year of Ford's own crash testing (1955) the Lifeguard package included:

Lincoln Motor Company

LincolnLincolnsContinental
After the Lincoln line's very large 1958, 1959, and 1960 models proved unpopular, McNamara pushed for smaller versions, such as the 1961 Lincoln Continental.
By 1958, the future of Lincoln-Mercury was at risk, with Ford President Robert McNamara considering the reduction of Ford to its namesake brand.

Harvard Business School

HarvardBusiness SchoolHarvard University
He was born in San Francisco, California, graduated from UC Berkeley and Harvard Business School and served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II.
Robert McNamara, 1939 – former Secretary of Defense and former President of the World Bank

M16 rifle

M16M-16M16A2
Conversely, his actions in mandating a premature across-the-board adoption of the untested M16 rifle proved catastrophic when the weapons began to fail in combat, though later congressional investigations revealed the causes of these failures as negligence and borderline sabotage on behalf of the Army ordnance corp's officers.
U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara now had two conflicting views: the ARPA report favoring the AR-15 and the Army's position favoring the M14.

General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark

F-111General Dynamics F-111F-111 Aardvark
McNamara tried to extend his success by merging development programs as well, resulting in the TFX dual service F-111 project.
The U.S. Air Force and Navy were both seeking new aircraft when Robert McNamara was appointed Secretary of Defense in January 1961.

Flexible response

befitting responseDoctrine of Flexible Responseflex performance
Kennedy and McNamara instituted a Cold War defense strategy of flexible response, which anticipated the need for military responses short of massive retaliation.
Robert McNamara argued for the definition of what was "unacceptable" to the enemy as the destruction of 50% of industry and 25% of the population.

Tactical Air Command

TACAir Defense, Tactical Air CommandAir Defense – Tactical Air Command (ADTAC)
Authorized to draw forces when needed from the Strategic Army Corps (STRAC), the Tactical Air Command, and the airlift units of the Military Air Transport Service and the military services, Strike Command had the mission "to respond swiftly and with whatever force necessary to threats against the peace in any part of the world, reinforcing unified commands or... carrying out separate contingency operations."
In 1961, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara organized the United States Strike Command at MacDill AFB, Florida to integrate CASF efforts with those of the Strategic Army Corps.

McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II

F-4F-4 Phantom IIF-4 Phantom
McNamara directed the Air Force to adopt the Navy's F-4 Phantom and A-7 Corsair combat aircraft, a consolidation that was quite successful.
The USAF received Phantoms as the result of Defense Secretary Robert McNamara's push to create a unified fighter for all branches of the military.

Piedmont, California

PiedmontPiedmont, CACity of Piedmont
He graduated from Piedmont High School in Piedmont in 1933, where he was president of the Rigma Lions boys club and earned the rank of Eagle Scout.
Robert McNamara, American Businessman and Secretary of Defense under President John F. Kennedy

Pentagon Papers

Documents releasedThe Pentagon PapersUnited States – Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense
The leak became known as the Pentagon Papers, revealing that McNamara and others had been aware that the Vietnam offensive was futile.
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara created the Vietnam Study Task Force on June 17, 1967, for the purpose of writing an "encyclopedic history of the Vietnam War".

Cuban Missile Crisis

missile crisisCuban Quarantine1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
McNamara became a close adviser to Kennedy and advocated the use of a blockade during the Cuban Missile Crisis.