Robert Morris (financier)

Robert MorrisMorrisMr. MorrisR[obert] MorrisRobert Morris the youngerRobert Morris, Jr.
Robert Morris, Jr. (January 20, 1734 – May 8, 1806) was an English-born merchant and a Founding Father of the United States.wikipedia
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Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
Robert Morris, Jr. (January 20, 1734 – May 8, 1806) was an English-born merchant and a Founding Father of the United States.
New arrivals included Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, John Hancock of Massachusetts, and John Witherspoon of New Jersey.

Nova Constellatio

first U.S. coin
The Nova Constellatio patterns were the culmination of two years of work on the part of Robert Morris, the Founding Father credited with financing the Revolutionary War.

Superintendent of Finance of the United States

Superintendent of FinanceFinanceFinance Office
From 1781 to 1784, he served as the Superintendent of Finance of the United States, becoming known as the "Financier of the Revolution."
The only person to hold the office was Robert Morris, who served from 1781 to 1784, with the assistance of Gouverneur Morris.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceindependenceAmerican Declaration of Independence
He served as a member of the Pennsylvania legislature, the Second Continental Congress, and the United States Senate, and he was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution.
In the Pennsylvania delegation, Dickinson and Robert Morris abstained, allowing the delegation to vote three-to-two in favor of independence.

Oxford, Maryland

In 1747, Morris immigrated to Oxford, Maryland, where his father had prospered in the tobacco trade.
Early inhabitants included Robert Morris, Sr., agent for a Liverpool shipping firm who greatly influenced the town's growth; his son, Robert Morris, Jr., known as "the financier of the Revolution;" Jeremiah Banning, sea captain, war hero, and statesman; The Reverend Thomas Bacon, Anglican clergyman who wrote the first compilation of the laws of Maryland; Matthew Tilghman, known as the "patriarch of Maryland" and "father of statehood"; and Colonel Tench Tilghman, aide-de-camp to George Washington and the man who carried the message of General Cornwallis's surrender to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

Alexander Hamilton

HamiltonHamiltonianA. Hamilton
Along with Alexander Hamilton and Albert Gallatin, he is widely regarded as one of the founders of the financial system of the United States.
Several Congressmen, including Hamilton, Robert Morris and Gouverneur Morris (no relation), attempted to use this Newburgh Conspiracy as leverage to secure support from the states and in Congress for funding of the national government.

USS Alfred (1774)

AlfredUSS ''AlfredUSS ''Alfred'' (1774)
It was owned by Willing, Morris & Co., a merchant trading firm operated by Thomas Willing and Robert Morris.

Albert Gallatin

GallatinistGallatinA. A. Albert Gallatin
Along with Alexander Hamilton and Albert Gallatin, he is widely regarded as one of the founders of the financial system of the United States.
With most of his business ventures unsuccessful, Gallatin sold much of his land, excluding Friendship Hill, to Robert Morris; he and his wife would instead live in Philadelphia and other coastal cities for most of the rest of their lives.

Haym Salomon

A statue of Morris stands at Independence National Historical Park, and a monument to Morris, Washington, and Haym Salomon stands at Heald Square in Chicago, Illinois.
He helped convert the French loans into ready cash by selling bills of exchange for Robert Morris, the Superintendent of Finance.

Panic of 1796–97

currency crisis of 1797international credit squeezepanic of 1797
After the onset of Panic of 1796–97, Morris left Philadelphia for his estate of The Hills, where he barred his creditors from visiting him.
The latter included the famed financier of the revolution Robert Morris and his partner James Greenleaf, who had invested in backcountry land.

Bank of North America

De Facto Central Bank, Chartered by the Congress of the Confederation
Morris also reformed government contracting and established the Bank of North America, the first bank to operate in the United States.
It was based upon a plan presented by US Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris on May 17, 1781 that created the Nation's first de facto central bank.

Thomas Willing

WillingThomas Willing Francis
He also befriended Thomas Willing, the oldest son of Charles Willing who was two years older than Morris and who, like Morris, had split his life between England and British North America.
In 1749, after studying abroad in England, he returned to Philadelphia, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits, in partnership with Robert Morris, until 1793.

Christ Church, Philadelphia

Christ ChurchChrist Church Burial GroundChrist Church North Garden
The Morrises worshiped at the Anglican Christ Church, which was also attended by Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Willing, and other leading citizens of Philadelphia.
American Revolutionary War leaders who attended Christ Church include George Washington, Robert Morris, Benjamin Franklin and Betsy Ross (after she had been read out of the Quaker meeting house to which she belonged for marrying John Ross, son of an assistant rector at Christ Church).

Phelps and Gorham Purchase

Mill Yard TractPhelps and GorhamBuffalo media market
Morris became increasingly fixated on land speculation, reaching his first major real estate deal in 1790 when he acquired much of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase in western New York.
They were also forced to sell at a discount much of the land they had already bought title to but had not yet re-sold; it was purchased by Robert Morris of Philadelphia, financier, U.S. Founding Father, and Senator.

Thomas Paine

Tom PainePainePaine, Thomas
After Morris left Congress, Laurens, Thomas Paine, and some other members of Congress continued to attack him for allegedly using his position in Congress for his own financial benefit, but in early 1779 a congressional committee cleared Morris of all charges.
There was scandal; together with Paine's conflict with Robert Morris and Silas Deane it led to Paine's expulsion from the Committee in 1779.

American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
Not until 1781 did the national government have a strong leader in financial matters, when Robert Morris was named Superintendent of Finance of the United States.

Holland Land Company

Holland Land CompaniesHolland PurchaseOgden Land Company
Morris used the money from this sale to purchase the remainder of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase, then turned around and sold much of that land to the Holland Land Company, a group of Dutch land speculators.
It was purchased in December 1792 and February and July 1793 from Robert Morris.

Debtors' prison

debtor's prisondebtors prisonimprisonment for debt
Unable to pay his creditors, he was confined in debtors' prison from 1798 to 1801.
Fellow signatory Robert Morris spent three years, from 1798 to 1801, in the Prune Street Debtors' Prison, Philadelphia Henry Lee III, better known as Henry "Light-Horse" Lee, a Revolutionary War general and father of Robert E. Lee, was imprisoned for debt between 1808 and 1809 where he made use of his time by writing "Memoirs of the War".

Thomas Morris (New York politician)

Thomas MorrisThomas
Thomas Morris (February 26, 1771 – March 12, 1849) was a United States Representative from New York and was a son of Founding Father Robert Morris.

President's House (Philadelphia)

President's HousePresident's House in Philadelphiaexecutive mansion
The President's House, as it became known, would serve as the residence of the president until 1800, when President John Adams moved to the White House in Washington, D.C.
Under his care the house suffered a fire, and was sold to a man whom Holker knew well, financier Robert Morris.


Sedgeley Porter's HousePorter's House
The land where the house was located was originally owned by Robert Morris, but was seized and auctioned off in 1799.

William Findley

In 1786 he was a critic of the Bank of North America, the nation's first central bank; he accused Robert Morris, the Continental Congress's Superintendent of Finance, of using the bank to enrich himself personally.

Newburgh Conspiracy

a potential coup d'étataddress to his officers, at Newburgh, New Yorkgroup of Army officers
Nonetheless, some historians believe that Morris was part of the "Newburgh Conspiracy."
Financier Robert Morris had in early 1782 stopped army pay as a cost-saving measure, arguing that when the war finally ended the arrears would be made up.

Schuylkill and Susquehanna Navigation Company

canalDelaware and Schuylkill navigation company
The project became the goal of the Society for the Improvement of Roads and Inland Navigation organized in 1789 with preeminent, wartime financier Robert Morris as president, David Rittenhouse, William Smith and John Nicolson.

Continental Congress

CongressContinental Congressman from DelawareDelegate to the Continental Congress
Robert Morris was selected as the new Superintendent of Finance, and then Morris used some ingenuity and initiative—along with a loan from the French Government—to deal with his empty treasury and also runaway inflation, for a number of years, in the supply of paper money.