Robert Peel

Sir Robert PeelPeelSir Robert Peel, 2nd BaronetSir Robert Peel, BtPeelite Robert PeelBritish statesmanMonument to Sir Robert PeelPeel administrationPrime Minister Peel
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).wikipedia
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Law enforcement in the United Kingdom

British policepolicePolicing in the United Kingdom
He is regarded as the father of modern British policing, owing to his founding of the Metropolitan Police Service.
The concept of professional policing was taken up by Sir Robert Peel when he became Home Secretary in 1822.

Conservative Party (UK)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
The name immediately caught on and was officially adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834.

Second Melbourne ministry

Melbourne IIWhig administrationadministration
After only four months, his government collapsed and he served as Leader of the Opposition during Melbourne's second government (1835–1841).
Lord Melbourne's second government came to power after Sir Robert Peel's minority government resigned in 1835.

Second Peel ministry

Peel IITory administrationsecond government
His second government ruled for five years.
The second Peel ministry was formed by Sir Robert Peel in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1841.

Tamworth Manifesto

1834Dec. 18341834, 18 December
Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto (December 1834), laying down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based.
The Tamworth Manifesto was a political manifesto issued by Sir Robert Peel in 1834 in Tamworth, which is widely credited by historians as having laid down the principles upon which the modern British Conservative Party is based.

1841 United Kingdom general election

18411841 general election1841 election
Peel became Prime Minister again after the 1841 general election.
In the 1841 United Kingdom general election, there was a big swing as Sir Robert Peel's Conservatives took control of the House of Commons.

First Peel ministry

Peel ITory administrationfirst administration
His first ministry was a minority government, dependent on Whig support and with Peel serving as his own Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Home Secretary

Secretary of State for the Home DepartmentHome SecretariesBritish Home Secretary
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
Sir Robert Peel was alarmed at the strength of the Catholic Association, warning in 1824, "We cannot tamely sit by while the danger is hourly increasing, while a power co-ordinate with that of the Government is rising by its side, nay, daily counteracting its views."

Maynooth Grant

grantgrant to Maynooth CollegeMaynooth Endowment Bill
Peel's government was weakened by anti-Catholic sentiment following the controversial increase in the Maynooth Grant of 1845.
In 1845, the Conservative Prime Minister, Sir Robert Peel, sought to improve the relationship between Catholic Ireland and Protestant England by increasing the annual grant from the British government to Maynooth, a Catholic seminary in Ireland in dilapidated condition.

Peelite

PeelitesLiberal ConservativesPeelite Conservative
Peel remained an influential MP and leader of the Peelite faction until his death in 1850.
Initially led by Robert Peel, the former Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader in 1846, the Peelites supported Free Trade whilst the bulk of the Conservative Party remained protectionist.

Sir Robert Peel, 1st Baronet

Sir Robert PeelRobert Peelfirst Sir Robert Peel
Peel was born at Chamber Hall, Bury, Lancashire, to the industrialist and parliamentarian Sir Robert Peel, 1st Baronet, and his wife Ellen Yates.
He was the father of Sir Robert Peel, twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

Tories (British political party)

ToryToriesTory Party
Historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote: "Peel was in the first rank of 19th century statesmen. He carried Catholic Emancipation; he repealed the Corn Laws; he created the modern Conservative Party on the ruins of the old Toryism."
Under the leadership of Robert Peel, the Tamworth Manifesto was issued, which began to transform the Tories into the Conservative Party.

Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)

Leader of the OppositionLeader of the Opposition in the House of LordsOpposition Leader
After only four months, his government collapsed and he served as Leader of the Opposition during Melbourne's second government (1835–1841).
Neither the Duke of Wellington or Robert Peel agreed to serve under George Canning and they were followed by five other members of the former Cabinet as well as forty junior members of the previous government.

Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829

Catholic Relief Act 1829Catholic Relief ActRoman Catholic Relief Act
Initially a supporter of continued legal discrimination against Catholics, Peel reversed himself and supported the repeal of the Test Act (1828) and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, claiming that "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger".
The British leaders, starting with the Prime Minister the Duke of Wellington and his top aide Robert Peel, although personally opposed, gave in to avoid civil strife.

Leader of the House of Commons

Leader of the HouseDeputy Leader of the House of CommonsLeader
After a brief period out of office he returned as Home Secretary under his political mentor the Duke of Wellington (1828–1830), also serving as Leader of the House of Commons.

Income Tax Act 1842

Income Tax Actintroduced
His government's major legislation included the Mines and Collieries Act 1842, the Income Tax Act 1842, the Factories Act 1844 and the Railway Regulation Act 1844.
The Income Tax Act 1842 (citation 5 & 6 Vict c. 35) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed under the government of Robert Peel, which re-introduced an income tax in Britain, at the rate of 7 pence (2.9%, there then being 240 pence in the pound) in the pound on all annual incomes greater than £150.

Staffordshire Yeomanry

Staffordshire Yeomanry (Queen's Own Royal Regiment)StaffordshireStaffordshire Yeomanry Cavalry
He also held military commissions as a captain in the Manchester Regiment of Militia in 1808, and later as lieutenant in the Staffordshire Yeomanry Cavalry in 1820.
Future Prime Minister Robert Peel was an officer in the Staffordshire Yeomanry Cavalry in 1820.

Harrow School

HarrowOld HarrovianOld Harrovians
He started at Harrow School in February 1800.
Its alumni include eight former British or Indian Prime Ministers (including Peel, Palmerston, Baldwin, Churchill and Nehru), foreign politicians, former and current members of both houses of the U.K. Parliament, five kings and several other members of various royal families, three Nobel Prize winners, twenty Victoria Cross and one George Cross holders, and many figures in the arts and sciences.

Tamworth, Staffordshire

TamworthTamworth Borough CouncilTamworth, England
The family moved from Lancashire to Drayton Manor near Tamworth, Staffordshire; the manor house has since been demolished, the site occupied by Drayton Manor Theme Park.
The Victorian Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel served as the town's Member of Parliament from 1830 until his death in 1850.

Income tax

income taxesincometaxes
He cut tariffs to stimulate trade, replacing the lost revenue with a 3% income tax.
In the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, income tax was reintroduced by Sir Robert Peel by the Income Tax Act 1842.

Catholic emancipation

emancipationCatholic Emancipation ActAct of Emancipation
Initially a supporter of continued legal discrimination against Catholics, Peel reversed himself and supported the repeal of the Test Act (1828) and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, claiming that "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger".
Finally, the Duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel changed positions and passed the Roman Catholic Relief Act of 1829.

Oxford University (UK Parliament constituency)

Oxford UniversityOxford University (seat 1/2)Oxford
Peel changed constituency twice, becoming MP for Chippenham in 1812, and then MP for Oxford University in 1817.
He first represented the university as a Peelite, supporting a former member for the constituency – the sometime Conservative Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel.

Royal Irish Constabulary

RICIrish ConstabularyR.I.C.
Peel thus laid the basis for the Royal Irish Constabulary.
The first organised police forces in Ireland came about through the Peace Preservation Act in 1814 for which Sir Robert Peel (1788–1850) was largely responsible (the colloquial names "Bobby" and "Peeler" derive from his name Robert and Peel), and the Irish Constabulary Act in 1822 formed the provincial constabularies.

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Prime MinisterBritish Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Great Britain
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
In 1834, King William IV dismissed Melbourne as premier, but was forced to recall him when Robert Peel, the king's choice, could not form a working majority.