Robert Whitehead

WhiteheadWhitehead & Co.Whitehead torpedoWhitehead and Companyself-propelled torpedoWHWhitehead & Company
Robert Whitehead (3 January 1823 – 14 November 1905) was an English engineer who was most famous for developing the first effective self-propelled naval torpedo.wikipedia
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Torpedo

torpedoeshoming torpedotorpedoed
Robert Whitehead (3 January 1823 – 14 November 1905) was an English engineer who was most famous for developing the first effective self-propelled naval torpedo.
In 1866 British engineer Robert Whitehead invented the first effective self-propelled torpedo, the eponymous Whitehead torpedo.

Whitehead torpedo

WhiteheadtorpedoWH
They discarded Luppis' concept of shore launch and control for an unguided weapon launched from a ship on a straight line at the target which became known as the Whitehead torpedo.
It was perfected in 1866 by Robert Whitehead from a design conceived by Giovanni Luppis of the Austro-Hungarian Navy.

Rijeka

FiumeRijeka, CroatiaSveti Kuzam
Whitehead's work in Trieste was noticed by the owners of Fonderia Metalli, a metal foundry in the nearby city of Fiume (today Rijeka, Croatia).
The industrial development of the city included the first industrial scale oil refinery in Europe in 1882 and the first torpedo factory in the world in 1866, after Robert Whitehead, manager of the "Stabilimento Tecnico Fiumano" (an Austrian engineering company engaged in providing engines for the Austro-Hungarian Navy), designed and successfully tested the world's first torpedo.

Vickers Limited

VickersVickers LtdVickers, Sons and Maxim
When Whitehead retired, the Whitehead family sold the company to two large British armaments companies, Vickers and Armstrong-Whitworth.
In 1911 a controlling interest was acquired in Whitehead and Company, the torpedo manufacturers.

Philip Taylor (civil engineer)

Philip TaylorTaylor & MartineauPhilip
His first professional employment was at a shipyard in Toulon, France, for Philip Taylor & Sons, and then as a consultant engineer in Milan, Italy.
Among his employees were William Adams, Fleeming Jenkin and Robert Whitehead.

SM U-20 (Austria-Hungary)

U-20SM U-XXSM ''U-20
SM U-XX, SM U-XXI, SM U-XXII and SM U-XXIII Type diesel-electric submarines were produced in Fiume.
When it became apparent to the Austro-Hungarian Navy that the First World War would not be a short war, they moved to bolster their U-boat fleet by seizing the plans for Denmark's Havmanden class submarines, three of which had been built at Whitehead & Co. in Fiume.

Giovanni Luppis

Ivan LupisIvan Lupis-Vukić
In the early 1860s, Whitehead met engineer Giovanni Luppis, who had recently retired to Trieste from the Austrian Navy.
In Fiume in 1864, the future mayor Giovanni de Ciotta introduced Luppis to the British machine engineer Robert Whitehead, manager of the local factory "Stabilimento Tecnico Fiumano", with whom he signed a contract to develop the 'salvacoste' further.

SM U-21 (Austria-Hungary)

SM U-XXIU-21SM ''U-21
SM U-XX, SM U-XXI, SM U-XXII and SM U-XXIII Type diesel-electric submarines were produced in Fiume.
When it became apparent to the Austro-Hungarian Navy that the First World War would not be a short one, they moved to bolster their U-boat fleet by seizing the plans for the Danish Havmanden class submarines, three of which had been built at Whitehead & Co. in Fiume.

Austro-Hungarian Navy

Austrian NavyAustro-HungarianNavy
The Austrian Navy was a customer.
The was built to the same design as the C-class for the US Navy and was built by Robert Whitehead's firm of Whitehead & Co. under license from Holland and his company, Electric Boat.

Ludwig Obry

Obry
Obry then patented his device and sold the rights to Robert Whitehead, who incorporated the mechanism into the Whitehead torpedo.

SM U-23 (Austria-Hungary)

U-23SM U-XXIIISM ''U-23
SM U-XX, SM U-XXI, SM U-XXII and SM U-XXIII Type diesel-electric submarines were produced in Fiume.
When it became apparent to the Austro-Hungarian Navy that the First World War would not be a short one, they moved to bolster their U-boat fleet by seizing the plans for the Danish Havmanden class submarines, three of which had been built at Whitehead & Co. in Fiume.

Chilean torpedo gunboat Almirante Lynch

Almirante LynchLynch'' (1891)
The principal armament was five Whitehead torpedo tubes, one in the bow and two in each broadside.

SM U-22 (Austria-Hungary)

SM U-XXIIU-22SM ''U-22
SM U-XX, SM U-XXI, SM U-XXII and SM U-XXIII Type diesel-electric submarines were produced in Fiume.
When it became apparent to the Austro-Hungarian Navy that the First World War would not be a short one, they moved to bolster their U-boat fleet by seizing the plans for the Danish Havmanden class submarines, three of which had been built at Whitehead & Co. in Fiume.

Schwartzkopff torpedo

L. SchwartzkopffSchwarzkopf
In 1866 Robert Whitehead, working on a design by Giovanni Luppis, perfected what came to be known as the Whitehead torpedo.

Pendulum-and-hydrostat control

hydrostatic valve and pendulumbellows and pendulum systemhydrostatic valve and pendulum balance
The pendulum and hydrostat control was invented by Robert Whitehead.

Alexander, Count of Hoyos

Count HoyosCount von HoyosAlexander Graf von Hoyos, Freiherr zu Stichsenstein
He was the grandson of Robert Whitehead, the inventor of the torpedo.

James Beethom Whitehead

Sir James Beethom WhiteheadSir James Whitehead
Whitehead was the second son of the engineer Robert Whitehead (1823–1905) by his wife Frances Maria Johnson (1821–1883), and was educated in Austria and at St John's College, Cambridge (BA 1881, MA 1887).

Herbert von Bismarck

HerbertHerbert, Prince of BismarckHerbert Fürst von Bismarck
He replied 'Officials have to be kept in a permanent state of irritation and alarm; the moment that ceases they stop working.' On 21 June 1892 in Vienna he married Countess Marguerite Hoyos, a member of the originally Spanish magnate family of Hoyos from Hungary, who herself was half-English and a granddaughter of Robert Whitehead, the inventor of the torpedo.

St Nicholas Church, Worth

St Nicholas' Church, WorthSt Nicholas' ChurchWorth Church
Whitehead is buried at the Parish Church of St Nicholas, Worth in Crawley, West Sussex.
The churchyard includes the grave of Robert Whitehead, inventor of the modern torpedo.

Georg von Trapp

Georg Ludwig von TrappCaptain von TrappGeorg Ritter von Trapp
Trapp married Agatha Whitehead, a niece of St John Brodrick, 1st Earl of Midleton and a granddaughter of Robert Whitehead who invented the modern torpedo.

Bolton

Bolton, EnglandBolton, LancashireBolton, Greater Manchester
He was born in Bolton, England, the son of James Whitehead, a cotton-bleacher, and his wife Ellen Whitehead née Swift.

Mechanics' Institute, Manchester

Manchester Mechanics' InstituteMechanics' InstituteManchester Mechanics Institute
He trained as an engineer and draughtsman, and attended the Mechanics' Institute, Manchester.

Toulon

Toulon, France83000 TOULONhistory
His first professional employment was at a shipyard in Toulon, France, for Philip Taylor & Sons, and then as a consultant engineer in Milan, Italy.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
His first professional employment was at a shipyard in Toulon, France, for Philip Taylor & Sons, and then as a consultant engineer in Milan, Italy.

Milan

Milan, ItalyMilanoMilano, Italy
His first professional employment was at a shipyard in Toulon, France, for Philip Taylor & Sons, and then as a consultant engineer in Milan, Italy.