# Robin Milner

**MilnerArthur John Robin Gorell MilnerA J MilnerA. J. Robin E. Milner, FRS**

Arthur John Robin Gorell Milner (13 January 1934 – 20 March 2010), known as Robin Milner or '''A.wikipedia

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### Swansea University

**University of Wales, SwanseaUniversity College, SwanseaUniversity College of Swansea**

Milner first worked as a schoolteacher then as a programmer at Ferranti, before entering academia at City University, London, then Swansea University, Stanford University, and from 1973 at the University of Edinburgh, where he was a co-founder of the Laboratory for Foundations of Computer Science (LFCS).

### City, University of London

**City University LondonCity UniversityCity University, London**

Milner first worked as a schoolteacher then as a programmer at Ferranti, before entering academia at City University, London, then Swansea University, Stanford University, and from 1973 at the University of Edinburgh, where he was a co-founder of the Laboratory for Foundations of Computer Science (LFCS).

### Calculus of communicating systems

**CCSCCS-Calculus**

In a very different area, Milner also developed a theoretical framework for analyzing concurrent systems, the calculus of communicating systems (CCS), and its successor, the -calculus.

The calculus of communicating systems (CCS) is a process calculus introduced by Robin Milner around 1980 and the title of a book describing the calculus.

### University of Edinburgh

**Edinburgh UniversityEdinburghThe University of Edinburgh**

Milner first worked as a schoolteacher then as a programmer at Ferranti, before entering academia at City University, London, then Swansea University, Stanford University, and from 1973 at the University of Edinburgh, where he was a co-founder of the Laboratory for Foundations of Computer Science (LFCS).

Computer scientists Robin Milner and Leslie Valiant, both Turing Award laureates, and mathematician Sir Michael Atiyah, Fields Medallist and Abel Prize winner, are associated with the university.

### ML (programming language)

**MLML programming languageML family**

The language he developed for LCF, ML, was the first language with polymorphic type inference and type-safe exception handling.

ML was developed by Robin Milner and others in the early 1970s at the University of Edinburgh, whose syntax is inspired by ISWIM.

### Hindley–Milner type system

**Hindley–Milner type inferenceHindley–Milner type inference algorithmHindley–Milner**

He is also credited for rediscovering the Hindley–Milner type system.

It was first described by J. Roger Hindley and later rediscovered by Robin Milner.

### Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Cambridge

**University of Cambridge Computer LaboratoryComputer LaboratoryUniversity of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory**

He returned to Cambridge as the head of the Computer Laboratory in 1995 from which he eventually stepped down, although he was still at the laboratory.

### Bigraph

**bigraphs**

At the time of his death, he was working on bigraphs, a formalism for ubiquitous computing subsuming CCS and the -calculus.

They have also been used by Robin Milner in an attempt to subsume Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) and π-calculus.

### Logic for Computable Functions

**LCFLCF theorem proverLCF-style**

He developed Logic for Computable Functions (LCF), one of the first tools for automated theorem proving.

Logic for Computable Functions (LCF) is an interactive automated theorem prover developed at Stanford and Edinburgh by Robin Milner and collaborators in early 1970ies, based on the theoretical foundation of logic of computable functions previously proposed by Dana Scott.

### Π-calculus

**pi-calculusPi calculus-calculus**

In a very different area, Milner also developed a theoretical framework for analyzing concurrent systems, the calculus of communicating systems (CCS), and its successor, the -calculus.

This was first observed by Milner in his paper "Functions as Processes", in which he presents two encodings of the lambda-calculus in the -calculus.

### Type inference

**inferredpartially inferredinfer**

The language he developed for LCF, ML, was the first language with polymorphic type inference and type-safe exception handling.

In 1978 Robin Milner, independently of Hindley's work, provided an equivalent algorithm, Algorithm W.

### Turing Award

**ACM Turing AwardA.M. Turing AwardA. M. Turing Award**

J. R. G. Milner''', was a British computer scientist, and a Turing Award winner.

### Royal Society of Edinburgh

**FRSEThe Royal Society of EdinburghNeill Prize**

In 2004, the Royal Society of Edinburgh awarded Milner with a Royal Medal for his "bringing about public benefits on a global scale".

### Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society

**DFBCSDistinguished FellowDistinguished Fellow at the British Computer Society (DFBCS)**

### British people

**BritishUnited KingdomBritons**

J. R. G. Milner''', was a British computer scientist, and a Turing Award winner.

### Computer scientist

**computer science professioncomputer-scientist**

J. R. G. Milner''', was a British computer scientist, and a Turing Award winner.

### Yealmpton

**KitleyYealmbridge**

Milner was born in Yealmpton, near Plymouth, England into a military family.

### Plymouth

**Plymouth, EnglandPlymouth, DevonPlymouth City Council**

Milner was born in Yealmpton, near Plymouth, England into a military family.

### England

**🏴EnglishENG**

Milner was born in Yealmpton, near Plymouth, England into a military family.

### Eton College

**EtonEtonianEton School**

He was awarded a scholarship to Eton College in 1947, and subsequently served in the Royal Engineers, attaining the rank of Second Lieutenant.

### Royal Engineers

**Corps of Royal EngineersRoyal EngineerRE**

He was awarded a scholarship to Eton College in 1947, and subsequently served in the Royal Engineers, attaining the rank of Second Lieutenant.

### King's College, Cambridge

**King's CollegeKing’s College, CambridgeKing**

He then enrolled at King's College, Cambridge, graduating in 1957.

### Programmer

**software developercomputer programmerdeveloper**

### Ferranti

**Ferranti Defence SystemsFerranti International plcFerranti Ltd**

### Stanford University

**StanfordLeland Stanford Junior UniversityUniversity of Stanford**