Robotics

roboticroboticistFuture of roboticsroboticianroboticistsrobotsrobotrobotic systemsrobotically-actuatedRobotics Engineering
Robotics is a scientific and engineering discipline that is focused on the understanding and use of artificial, embodied capabilities.wikipedia
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Robot

robotsbotbots
On the engineering side, roboticists deal with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots, especially through computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
The branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing is robotics.

Mechanical engineering

mechanical engineermechanicalmechanical engineers
The people who work in this field (roboticists) come from mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, and other fields.
In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others.

Electronic engineering

Electronics and Communication EngineeringElectronics Engineeringelectronic engineer
The people who work in this field (roboticists) come from mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, and other fields.
Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics, radio engineering, telecommunications, control systems, signal processing, systems engineering, computer engineering, instrumentation engineering, electric power control, robotics, and many others.

Artificial intelligence

AIA.I.artificially intelligent
This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology and bioengineering.
These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. "robotics" or "machine learning"), the use of particular tools ("logic" or artificial neural networks), or deep philosophical differences.

Bio-inspired robotics

bio-inspiredbio-inspired aquatic locomotionbio-inspired flying robots
Many of today's robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.
Bio-inspired roboticists are usually interested in biosensors (e.g. eye), bioactuators (e.g. muscle), or biomaterials (e.g. spider silk).

Autonomous robot

autonomousautonomouslyautonomous systems
The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.
Autonomous robotics is usually considered to be a subfield of artificial intelligence, robotics, and information engineering.

Mechatronics

Mechatronics EngineeringmechatronicMechatronic Engineering
This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology and bioengineering.
Mechatronics, which is also called mechatronic engineering, is a multidisciplinary branch of engineering that focuses on the engineering of both electrical and mechanical systems, and also includes a combination of robotics, electronics, computer, telecommunications, systems, control, and product engineering.

Android (robot)

androidandroidsmechanoid
The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans – very similar to the modern ideas of androids.
Historically, androids were completely within the domain of science fiction and frequently seen in film and television, but recent advances in robot technology now allow the design of functional and realistic humanoid robots.

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

STEMSTEM fieldsSTEM education
Robotics is also used in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) as a teaching aid.
The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement lists disciplines including physics, actuarial science, chemistry, biology, mathematics, applied mathematics, statistics, computer science, computational science, psychology, biochemistry, robotics, computer engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, information science, information technology, civil engineering, aerospace engineering, chemical engineering, astrophysics, astronomy, optics, nanotechnology, nuclear physics, mathematical biology, operations research, neurobiology, biomechanics, bioinformatics, acoustical engineering, geographic information systems, atmospheric sciences, educational/instructional technology, software engineering, and educational research.

William Grey Walter

W. Grey WalterElmerElsie
William Grey Walter (February 19, 1910 – May 6, 1977) was an American-born British neurophysiologist, cybernetician and robotician.

ABB Group

ABBAsea Brown BoveriABB Asea Brown Boveri
ABB (ASEA Brown Boveri) (swx: ABBN, nyse: ABB, omx: SSE3966 ABB) is a Swiss-Swedish multinational corporation headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, operating mainly in robotics, power, heavy electrical equipment, and automation technology areas.

Robin Popplestone

R. Popplestone
Robin John Popplestone (9 December 1938 – 14 April 2004) was a pioneer in the fields of machine intelligence and robotics.

Liar! (short story)

Liar!Liar!" (short story)
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction.
contains the first recorded use of the word "robotics" according to the Oxford English Dictionary.

Isaac Asimov

AsimovAsimov, IsaacLight Verse
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction.
Furthermore, the Oxford English Dictionary credits his science fiction for introducing into the English language the words "robotics", "positronic" (an entirely fictional technology), and "psychohistory" (which is also used for a different study on historical motivations).

List of engineering branches

engineering disciplinesFields of engineeringengineering
Robotics is a scientific and engineering discipline that is focused on the understanding and use of artificial, embodied capabilities.

Swarm robotics

swarmrobot swarmdrone swarm
The research of swarm robotics is to study the design of robots, their physical body and their controlling behaviours.

Robot end effector

end-effectorend effectorgripper
Thus the "hands" of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the "arm" is referred to as a manipulator.
In robotics, an end effector is the device at the end of a robotic arm, designed to interact with the environment.

Line marker (sports)

Sports field line markingsports-field chalk markerline markers
A variety of devices have been used, some of them now being robotically controlled.

Norbert Wiener

WienerWiener, NorbertN. Wiener
In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics.
Wiener later helped develop the theories of cybernetics, robotics, computer control, and automation.

Lights out (manufacturing)

automated factoriesautomated factoryautomated industrial complex
FANUC, the Japanese robotics company, has been operating a "lights out" factory for robots since 2001.

Cybernetics

cyberneticcyberneticiancybernetically
In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics.

Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Institute of TechnologyCarnegie MellonCarnegie-Mellon University
Several one-wheeled balancing robots have been designed recently, such as Carnegie Mellon University's "Ballbot" that is the approximate height and width of a person, and Tohoku Gakuin University's "BallIP".
The work of researchers in new fields like robotics and software engineering helped the university to build on its reputation.

Computer science

computer scientistcomputer sciencescomputer scientists
The people who work in this field (roboticists) come from mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, and other fields. This field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics, nanotechnology and bioengineering.
AI is associated in the popular mind with robotic development, but the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in areas of software development, which require computational understanding.

Degrees of freedom (mechanics)

degrees of freedomdegree of freedompitch
These are highly dexterous manipulators, with as many as 20 degrees of freedom and hundreds of tactile sensors.
It is the number of parameters that determine the state of a physical system and is important to the analysis of systems of bodies in mechanical engineering, aeronautical engineering, robotics, and structural engineering.

Ismail al-Jazari

Al-Jazarial-Jazari, Ismailal-Jazarī
Rosheim summarizes the advances in robotics made by Muslim engineers, especially al-Jazari, as follows: