A report on Robotics

The Shadow robot hand system
Mechanical construction
Electrical aspect
A level of programming
The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom
A robotic leg powered by air muscles
KUKA industrial robot operating in a foundry
Puma, one of the first industrial robots
Baxter, a modern and versatile industrial robot developed by Rodney Brooks
Lefty, first checker playing robot
Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya
TALON military robots used by the United States Army
Two robot snakes. Left one has 64 motors (with 2 degrees of freedom per segment), the right one 10.
Capuchin, a climbing robot
Robotic Fish: iSplash-II
The autonomous sailboat robot Vaimos
Radar, GPS, and lidar, are all combined to provide proper navigation and obstacle avoidance (vehicle developed for 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge)
Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions.
Puppet Magnus, a robot-manipulated marionette with complex control systems.
Experimental planar robot arm and sensor-based, open-architecture robot controller developed at Sunderland University, UK in 2000
RuBot II can manually resolve Rubik's cubes.
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo IREX 2009.
Two Jet Propulsion Laboratory engineers stand with three vehicles, providing a size comparison of three generations of Mars rovers. Front and center is the flight spare for the first Mars rover, Sojourner, which landed on Mars in 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Project. On the left is a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) test vehicle that is a working sibling to Spirit and Opportunity, which landed on Mars in 2004. On the right is a test rover for the Mars Science Laboratory, which landed Curiosity on Mars in 2012. Sojourner is 65 cm long. The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) are 1.6 m long. Curiosity on the right is 3 m long.
The SCORBOT-ER 4u educational robot
A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots. (Courtesy: MobileRobots, Inc.)

Interdisciplinary branch of computer science and engineering.

- Robotics
The Shadow robot hand system

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FIRST Lego League Explore

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FIRST LEGO League Explore (FLLE) (formerly known as FIRST LEGO League Jr.) is a non-competitive robotics program designed for children ages six to ten.

Global Positioning System

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Satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Space Force.

Satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Space Force.

GPS constellation system animation
AFSPC Vice Commander Lt. Gen. DT Thompson presents Dr. Gladys West with an award as she is inducted into the Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Hall of Fame.
Unlaunched GPS block II-A satellite on display at the San Diego Air & Space Museum
A visual example of a 24-satellite GPS constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. Notice how the number of satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface changes with time. The point in this example is in Golden, Colorado, USA (39.7469°N, -105.2108°W).
Ground monitor station used from 1984 to 2007, on display at the Air Force Space and Missile Museum.
GPS receivers come in a variety of formats, from devices integrated into cars, phones, and watches, to dedicated devices such as these.
The first portable GPS unit, a Leica WM 101, displayed at the Irish National Science Museum at Maynooth.
A typical OEM GPS receiver module measuring 15x17 mm
A typical GPS receiver with integrated antenna.
This antenna is mounted on the roof of a hut containing a scientific experiment needing precise timing.
Attaching a GPS guidance kit to a dumb bomb, March 2003.
M982 Excalibur GPS-guided artillery shell.
Demodulating and Decoding GPS Satellite Signals using the Coarse/Acquisition Gold code.
2-D Cartesian true-range multilateration (trilateration) scenario.
Three satellites (labeled as "stations" A, B, C) have known locations. The true times it takes for a radio signal to travel from each satellite to the receiver are unknown, but the true time differences are known. Then, each time difference locates the receiver on a branch of a hyperbola focused on the satellites. The receiver is then located at one of the two intersections.
A smaller circle inscribed and tangent to other circles, that need not necessarily be mutually tangent.

Robotics: self-navigating, autonomous robots using GPS sensors, which calculate latitude, longitude, time, speed, and heading.

Autonomy

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Capacity to make an informed, uncoerced decision.

Capacity to make an informed, uncoerced decision.

In robotics, "autonomy means independence of control. This characterization implies that autonomy is a property of the relation between two agents, in the case of robotics, of the relations between the designer and the autonomous robot. Self-sufficiency, situatedness, learning or development, and evolution increase an agent's degree of autonomy.", according to Rolf Pfeifer.

Frubber

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Frubber (from "flesh rubber") is a patented elastic form of rubber used in robotics.

Robot based on the NXT platform

Lego Mindstorms

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Hardware and software structure which develops programmable robots based on Lego building blocks.

Hardware and software structure which develops programmable robots based on Lego building blocks.

Robot based on the NXT platform
Robot based on the NXT platform
First-generation RCX programmable brick
Lego Mindstorms NXT Kit
Robot built from the NXT kit
Brick of Lego Mindstorms EV3

Lego Mindstorms NXT was a programmable robotics kit released by Lego in August 2006, replacing the first-generation LEGO Mindstorms kit.

A Flip video camera, formerly manufactured by Cisco.

Video camera

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Camera used for the electronic recording of videos .

Camera used for the electronic recording of videos .

A Flip video camera, formerly manufactured by Cisco.
President Barack Obama and Small Business Administration Administrator Karen Mills shown onscreen during an East Room event in the White House in 2009

Special camera systems are used for scientific research, e.g. on board a satellite or a space probe, in artificial intelligence and robotics research, and in medical use. Such cameras are often tuned for non-visible radiation for infrared (for night vision and heat sensing) or X-ray (for medical and video astronomy use).

Lidar-derived image of Marching Bears Mound Group, Effigy Mounds National Monument.

Lidar

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Method for determining ranges (variable distance) by targeting an object or a surface with a laser and measuring the time for the reflected light to return to the receiver.

Method for determining ranges (variable distance) by targeting an object or a surface with a laser and measuring the time for the reflected light to return to the receiver.

Lidar-derived image of Marching Bears Mound Group, Effigy Mounds National Monument.
A FASOR used at the Starfire Optical Range for lidar and laser guide star experiments is tuned to the sodium D2a line and used to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere.
This lidar may be used to scan buildings, rock formations, etc., to produce a 3-D model. The lidar can aim its laser beam in a wide range: its head rotates horizontally; a mirror tilts vertically. The laser beam is used to measure the distance to the first object on its path.
Click image to see the animation. A basic lidar system involves a laser range finder reflected by a rotating mirror (top). The laser is scanned around the scene being digitized, in one or two dimensions (middle), gathering distance measurements at specified angle intervals (bottom).
Airborne Lidar Bathymetric Technology-High-resolution multibeam lidar map showing spectacularly faulted and deformed seafloor geology, in shaded relief and coloured by depth.
Lidar scanning performed with a multicopter UAV.
This mobile robot uses its lidar to construct a map and avoid obstacles.
Lidar is used to analyze yield rates on agricultural fields.
Cruise Automation self-driving car with five Velodyne LiDAR units on the roof
Forecast 3-D Laser System using a SICK LMC lidar sensor
Lidar imaging comparing old-growth forest (right) to a new plantation of trees (left)
This TomTom mapping van is fitted with five lidar sensors on its roof rack
A point cloud generated from a moving car using a single Ouster OS1 lidar
Lidar scanner on iPad Pro (4th generation)

Lidar technology is being used in robotics for the perception of the environment as well as object classification.

Self-driving car

Fourth Industrial Revolution

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The Fourth Industrial Revolution, 4IR, or Industry 4.0, conceptualizes rapid change to technology, industries, and societal patterns and processes in the 21st century due to increasing interconnectivity and smart automation.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution, 4IR, or Industry 4.0, conceptualizes rapid change to technology, industries, and societal patterns and processes in the 21st century due to increasing interconnectivity and smart automation.

Self-driving car
Internet of Things (IoT)
Hydroponic Vertical farming

A part of this phase of industrial change is the joining of technologies like artificial intelligence, gene editing, to advanced robotics that blur the lines between the physical, digital, and biological worlds.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute's aerial robot autonomously inspects the target building before launching a subvehicle through a window in 2007

International Aerial Robotics Competition

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Longest running university-based robotics competition in the world.

Longest running university-based robotics competition in the world.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute's aerial robot autonomously inspects the target building before launching a subvehicle through a window in 2007
Third mission Southern Polytechnic State University helicopter-based aerial robot flying near fire hazard
Third mission autonomous pneumatic animatron designed by Prof. Michelson.
TU-Berlin helicopter-based aerial robot—winner of third mission in 2000
Fourth/fifth mission nuclear reactor complex explosion scenario
University of Michigan mission 7a aerial robot at the 2014 American Venue
IARC mission 8 scenario
IARC mission 9 scenario
Unconventional aerial robotic flying machine from the University of British Columbia
Fourth mission McKenna MOUT site with specific buildings designated
Fourth mission $27,700 prize recipient GTMax aerial robot carrying sub-vehicle deployment boom (inset) and GTMax approaching McKenna MOUT Site with 90-foot boom sling load deployed

The primary goal of the competition has been to provide a reason for the state of the art in aerial robotics to move forward.

Hierarchical Paradigm schema

Robotic paradigm

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Hierarchical Paradigm schema
Reactive Paradigm schema
Hybrid Deliberate/Reactive Paradigm schema

In robotics, a robotic paradigm is a mental model of how a robot operates.