Rock and roll

Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio, in the origins of rock and roll
Chuck Berry in 1957
Bill Haley and his Comets performing in the 1954 Universal International film Round Up of Rhythm
Elvis Presley in a promotion shot for Jailhouse Rock in 1957
Little Richard in 1957
Buddy Holly and his band, the Crickets.
Tommy Steele, one of the first British rock and rollers, performing in Stockholm in 1957
"There's No Romance in Rock and Roll" made the cover of True Life Romance in 1956

Genre of popular music that evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

- Rock and roll

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Double bass

For the contrabass voice, see Basso profondo; for the frequency range in general, see Sub-bass.

Ellen Andrea Wang performing at the Oslo Jazz Festival
Double bass is a standard instrument in bluegrass groups.
Some early basses were conversions of existing violones. This 1640 painting by Peter Lely, a painter of Dutch origin, shows a violone being played.
Jazz bassist Ron Carter pictured playing with his Quartet at "Altes Pfandhaus" in Cologne
Example of a Busetto-shaped double bass: remake of a Matthias Klotz (1700) by Rumano Solano
Principal parts of the double bass
This photo shows the thick soundpost on a double bass (circled in green).
Detail of the bridge and strings
Gut strings
French (upper) and German bows compared
German-style bow
French-style bow
A bassist holding a French bow; note how the thumb rests on the shaft of the bow next to the frog.
A variety of rosin types
The bass (or F) clef is used for most double bass music.
Double bass player Vivien Garry playing a show in New York City in 1947
A low-C extension with wooden mechanical "fingers" that stop the string at C, D, E, or E. For orchestral passages which only go down to a low E, the "finger" at the nut is usually closed.
French double-bass player and composer Renaud Garcia-Fons during a performance
Psychobilly bassist Jimbo Wallace onstage with Reverend Horton Heat; note his large bass stack consisting of a 15-inch cabinet, a quadruple 10-inch cabinet, and an amplifier "head".
Hard flight cases for double basses
A wooden mute attached to the bass bridge to make the tone darker (a drawing from 1900)
The Italian bass virtuoso Domenico Dragonetti helped to encourage composers to give more difficult parts for his instrument.
The virtuoso nineteenth-century bassist and composer Giovanni Bottesini with his 1716 Carlo Antonio Testore bass
Serge Koussevitzky popularized the double bass in modern times as a solo instrument.
Jazz bassist Charles Mingus was also an influential bandleader and composer whose musical interests spanned from bebop to free jazz.
Upright bass used by a bluegrass group; the cable for a piezoelectric pickup can be seen extending from the bridge.
Country music bassist "Too Slim" (Fred LaBour of Riders in the Sky) performing in Ponca City, Oklahoma, in 2008
Jim Creeggan of Barenaked Ladies, pictured at a 2009 show
A mid-sized bass amp used to amplify a double bass at a small jazz gig
Double bass soloist Gary Karr
Christian McBride (born 1972), one of the new "young lions" in the jazz scene, has won four Grammy Awards.
Scott Owen, double bass player for Australian rock band The Living End
Jazz singer/bassist Esperanza Spalding performing on 10 December 2009 at the Nobel Peace Prize Concert of 2009
Manhattan School of Music professor Timothy Cobb teaching a bass lesson in the late 2000s. His bass has a low C extension with a metal "machine" with buttons for playing the pitches on the extension.
A German double bass section in 1952. The player to the left is using a German bow.

The bass is used in a range of other genres, such as jazz, 1950s-style blues and rock and roll, rockabilly, psychobilly, traditional country music, bluegrass, tango and folk music.

Saxophone

Type of single-reed woodwind instrument with a conical body, usually made of brass.

Two mouthpieces for tenor saxophone: the one on the left is ebonite; the one on the right is metal.
Adolphe Sax, the inventor of the saxophone
In a rare early inclusion in an orchestral score, the saxophone was used in Gioacchino Rossini's Robert Bruce (1846)
A US sailor with the Seventh Fleet Band plays a tenor saxophone in Hong Kong
Classical saxophonist Sigurd Raschèr
SS Stockholm. 369th Infantry Regiment Band and leader Lt. James Reese Europe, winter 1918–1919
Coleman Hawkins, the most influential saxophone stylist of jazz's early period, c. 1945
Charlie Parker, leader of the bebop revolution, 1947
Illinois Jacquet, early influence on R&B saxophone, 1941
Eppelsheim Soprillo Saxophone
Saxos de Bambú by Ángel Sampedro del Río, Argentina
From left to right, an E{{music|b}} alto saxophone, a curved B{{music|b}} soprano saxophone, and a B{{music|b}} tenor saxophone
A straight-necked Conn C melody saxophone (Conn New Wonder Series 1)<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.saxpics.com/?v=gal&c=622|title=Photo Gallery :: SaxPics.com|work=saxpics.com}}</ref> with a serial number that dates manufacture to 1922
Vintage silver-plated 'Pennsylvania Special' alto saxophone, manufactured by Kohlert & Sons for Selmer<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.saxpics.com/?v=gal&a=2082 |title=Photo Gallery |publisher=SaxPics.com |access-date=2014-05-19}}</ref> in Czechoslovakia, circa 1930
Conn 6M "Lady Face"<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.saxpics.com/?v=gal&c=534|title=Photo Gallery :: SaxPics.com|work=saxpics.com}}</ref> brass alto saxophone (dated 1935) in its original case
1950s Grafton alto made of plastic
Yamaha YAS-25 alto saxophone. Circa 1990s
Yanagisawa A9932J alto saxophone: has a solid silver bell and neck with solid phosphor bronze body. The bell, neck and key-cups are extensively engraved. Manufactured in 2008
Bauhaus Walstein tenor saxophone manufactured in 2008 from phosphor bronze
The lower portion of a P. Mauriat alto saxophone, showing the mother of pearl key touches and engraved brass pad cups
A Yamaha baritone saxophone
Ochres Music "No.5" hand-made professional alto saxophone with 24 carat gold seal on bell.
Vito 'Model 35' alto saxophone, circa 1960s. An unusual instrument with additional keywork.

The saxophone is also used as a solo and melody instrument or as a member of a horn section in some styles of rock and roll and popular music.

Sister Rosetta Tharpe

American singer, songwriter and guitarist.

Photo portrait of Tharpe, 1938, by James J. Kriegsmann
Tharpe posed with a guitar, 1938

She was the first great recording star of gospel music, and was among the first gospel musicians to appeal to rhythm and blues and rock and roll audiences, later being referred to as "the original soul sister" and "the Godmother of rock and roll".

Alan Freed

American disc jockey.

Freed c. 1958
Concert poster for the Coronation Ball
Freed's gravestone in Cleveland

He also produced and promoted large traveling concerts with various acts, helping to spread the importance of rock and roll music throughout North America.

Electric guitar

Guitar that requires external amplification in order to be heard at typical performance volumes, unlike a standard acoustic guitar guitar - exists).

The "Frying Pan", 1932
Electro-Spanish by Ken Roberts, 1935
The Fender Stratocaster has one of the most often emulated electric guitar shapes
Epiphone semi-acoustic hollow-body guitar
Detail of a Squier-made Fender Stratocaster. Note the vibrato arm, the 3 single-coil pickups, the volume and tone knobs.
Tune-o-matic with "strings through the body" construction (without stopbar)
Pickups on a Fender Squier "Fat Strat" guitar—a "humbucker" pickup on the left and two single-coil pickups on the right.
Roasted Maple guitar neck blanks with flame figure before shaping
A bolt-on neck
A neck-through bass guitar
An electric guitar store

It served as a major component in the development of electric blues, rock and roll, rock music, heavy metal music and many other genres of music.

Top 40

Current, 40 most-popular songs in a particular genre.

Musicians working in a recording studio.

Storz is credited by some sources as helping to popularize rock and roll music.

Origins of rock and roll

The origins of rock and roll are complex.

Louis Jordan in 1946
Jimmie Rodgers
Roy Brown, writer and singer of "Good Rocking Tonight" in 1947

Rock and roll emerged as a defined musical style in the United States in the early to mid-1950s.

Gospel music

Traditional genre of Christian music, and a cornerstone of Christian media.

Philip Paul Bliss
Mahalia Jackson has been called the "Queen of Gospel"

Sister Rosetta Tharpe, pioneer of rock and roll, soon emerged from this tradition as the first great gospel recording artist.

Beat (music)

Basic unit of time, the pulse , of the mensural level (or beat level).

Metric levels: beat level shown in middle with division levels above and multiple levels below.
Beginning of Bach's BWV 736, with upbeat (anacrusis) in red.
Off-beat or backbeat pattern, popular on snare drum
Back beat
"It's got a backbeat, you can't lose it" – Chuck Berry, "Rock and Roll Music"
Delayed backbeat (last eighth note in each measure) as in funk music
Hypermeter: 4 beat measure, 4 measure hypermeasure, and 4 hypermeasure verses. Hyperbeats in red.

Similarly Fred Maddox's characteristic backbeat, a slapping bass style, helped drive a rhythm that came to be known as rockabilly, one of the early forms of rock and roll.

Big Joe Turner

American blues shouter from Kansas City, Missouri.

Turner performing, 1973
Turner performing in the 1955 film Rock 'n' Roll Revue

According to songwriter Doc Pomus, "Rock and roll would have never happened without him."