A report on Rocky Mountains

The summits of the Teton Range in Wyoming
Mount Robson in British Columbia
Glaciers, such as Jackson Glacier in Glacier National Park, Montana, as shown here, have dramatically shaped the Rocky Mountains.
Tilted slabs of sedimentary rock in Roxborough State Park near Denver
Great Sand Dunes of Colorado
Bighorn sheep (such as this lamb in Alberta) have declined dramatically since European-American settlement of the mountains
Mesa Verde ruins in Colorado
Cherokee Trail near Fort Collins, Colorado, from a sketch taken June 7, 1859
Sir Alexander MacKenzie in 1800
Aspen, Colorado silver mining in 1898
The Saltair Pavilion on the Great Salt Lake in 1900
Drilling rig for natural gas near the Wind River Range
Castle Geyser in Yellowstone National Park
Icefields Parkway

The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range and the largest mountain system in North America.

- Rocky Mountains
The summits of the Teton Range in Wyoming

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Overall

Montana

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State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

Early Indian treaty territories in Montana
Assiniboine family, Montana, 1890–91
Montana Territory in 1865
Chief Joseph and Col. John Gibbon met again on the Big Hole Battlefield site in 1889.
Buffalo Soldiers, Ft. Keogh, Montana, 1890. The nickname was given to the "Black Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought.
Mennonite family in Montana, c. 1937
Map of Montana
Relief map of Montana
Saint Mary Lake in Glacier National Park
Belly River in Waterton Lakes National Park
Missouri Breaks region in central Montana
Pompeys Pillar National Monument
Quake Lake was created by a landslide during the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake.
Temperature and precipitation for Montana's capital city, Helena
Köppen climate types of Montana, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Clark Fork River, Missoula, in autumn
Missoula, the second-largest city in Montana
Montana population density map
Population of Montana 1870–2018
Indian reservations in Montana. Borders are not exact.
Montana ranks 2nd nationally in craft breweries per capita.
First Interstate Center, in downtown Billings, is the tallest building in Montana.
Dancers at Crow Fair in 1941
Montana State Bobcats football at Bobcat Stadium (Montana State University), Bozeman
Lone Mountain at Big Sky Ski Resort
The Big Sky Resort
The Palisades area on the north end of the ski area at Red Lodge Mountain Resort
Guided snowmobile tours in Yellowstone Park
Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, Montana
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

In all, 77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains.

British Columbia

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Westernmost province of Canada.

Westernmost province of Canada.

British Columbia's geography is epitomized by the variety and intensity of its physical relief, which has defined patterns of settlement and industry since colonization.
Outline map of British Columbia with significant cities and towns
Köppen climate types in British Columbia
The Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver
Shuswap Lake as seen from Sorrento
The Okanagan region has a climate suitable to vineyards.
Mount Robson, Canadian Rockies
Odaray Mountain and Lake O'Hara
Yoho National Park
Cheakamus Lake in Garibaldi Provincial Park
Humpback whale in Sooke coast
'Namgis Thunderbird Transformation Mask, 19th century
Fort San Miguel at Nootka in 1793
Kwakwaka'wakw house pole, second half of the 19th century
Fort Rupert, Vancouver Island, 1851
Cattle near the Maas by Dutch painter Aelbert Cuyp. Moody likened his vision of the nascent Colony of British Columbia to the pastoral scenes painted by Cuyp.
Victoria, 1864
Lord Strathcona drives the Last Spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at Craigellachie, November 7, 1885. Completion of the transcontinental railroad was a condition of British Columbia's entry into Confederation.
Memorial to the "last spike" in Craigellachie
Statue of Queen Victoria outside the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
Internment camp for Japanese Canadians during World War II
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W.A.C. Bennett, 25th premier of British Columbia
British Columbia's pavilion for Expo 86, Vancouver
The Coquihalla Highway was one of the legacies of the Expo 86 world's fair, though creation of the toll highway sparked controversy. Tolling was removed in 2008.
The cauldron of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver
Population density map of British Columbia, with regional district borders shown
The Vancouver skyline
Canada Place in Downtown Vancouver
Entrance to Telus Garden
The British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
Coat of arms' escutcheon of the current lieutenant governor
John Horgan is premier, BC's head of government.
The meeting chamber of the Legislative Assembly
The flower of the Pacific dogwood is often associated with British Columbia.
The Alex Fraser Bridge on Highway 91 between Richmond and Delta
British Columbia Highway 1 near Brentwood, Burnaby
CPR train traversing the Stoney Creek Bridge
Spirit of Vancouver Island S-class ferry
Ice sailing in Whistler
Shoreline Trail in Victoria
Hatley Castle on the campus of Royal Roads University
Aerial view of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby
Quest University Canada Academic Building, aerial view

Situated between the Pacific Ocean and the continental divide of the Rocky Mountains, the province has a diverse geography, replete with rugged landscapes that include rocky coastlines, sandy beaches, forests, lakes, mountains, inland deserts and grassy plains.

Colorado

18 links

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

Ruins of Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde National Park. Photo by Gustaf Nordenskiöld, 1891
Great Kiva at Chimney Rock in the San Juan Mountains of Southwestern Colorado. It is said to have been built by the Ancient Pueblo peoples.
The Spanish discovering the Colorado River, namesake of the state, in 1540, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau. García López de Cárdenas can be seen overlooking the Grand Canyon.
Map of the Mexican Cession, with the white representing the territory the United States received from Mexico (plus land ceded to the Republic of Texas) after the Mexican–American War. Well over half of Colorado was received during this treaty.
The Anasazi Heritage Center in Dolores
The territories of New Mexico, Utah, Kansas, and Nebraska before the creation of the Territory of Colorado
Mount of the Holy Cross, photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1874
The Georgetown Loop of the Colorado Central Railroad as photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1899
Three 10th Mountain Division skitroopers above Camp Hale in February 1944.
The arid high plains in Southeastern Colorado
Front Range Peaks west of Denver
Tenmile Range and Dillon Reservoir near Breckenridge
Grays Peak at 4352 m is the highest point on the Continental Divide in North America
The high desert lands that make up the San Luis Valley in Southern Colorado
Maroon Bells, at 14163 ft, is part of White River National Forest and a tourist destination
The Colorado National Monument near Grand Junction is made up of high desert canyons and sandstone rock formations
Köppen climate types of Colorado, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Breckenridge naturalist Edwin Carter with a mounted gray wolf killed in the Colorado Rockies, ca. 1890–1900.
An enlargeable map of the 64 counties of the State of Colorado
An enlargeable map of the 17 core-based statistical areas of Colorado
Colorado population density map
Denver Energy Center lies in the Denver financial district along 17th Street, known as the Wall Street of the West
Corn growing in Larimer County
An oil well in western Colorado
History Colorado Center in Denver
Street art in Denver
The Colorado Rockies baseball club at Coors Field
Empower Field at Mile High in Denver, home field of the Denver Broncos and the Denver Outlaws
Ball Arena, home of the Denver Nuggets, the Colorado Avalanche, and the Colorado Mammoth
Dick's Sporting Goods Park, home of the Colorado Rapids
A Colorado state welcome sign
The main terminal of Denver International Airport evokes the peaks of the Front Range.
The westbound and eastbound California Zephyrs meet in the Glenwood Canyon.
Colorado Christian University
Colorado College
Colorado Mesa University
Colorado School of Mines
Colorado State University
Regis University
The United States Air Force Academy
The University of Colorado Boulder
The University of Denver
Fort Carson
Peterson Space Force Base
United States Air Force Academy
The Southern Ute Tribal Administration Building
The Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Office Complex
Lowry Pueblo in Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve
Spruce Tree House in Mesa Verde National Park

The region has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13,000 years, with the Lindenmeier site containing artifacts dating from approximately 9200 to 1000 BC; the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains was a major migration route for early peoples who spread throughout the Americas.

Alberta

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One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

A topographic map of Alberta, showing cities, towns, municipal district (county) and rural municipality borders, and natural features
Moraine Lake at Banff National Park. The Alberta Mountain forests makes up the southwestern boundary of Alberta.
Köppen climate types in Alberta
Southeastern Alberta features a semi-arid steppe climate.
The wild rose is the provincial flower of Alberta.
A bighorn sheep in Kananaskis Country. The bighorn sheep is the provincial mammal of Alberta.
Specimens at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, located in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation at Dinosaur Provincial Park. Some of the specimens, from left to right, are Hypacrosaurus, Edmontosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Gorgosaurus (both in the background), Tyrannosaurus, and Triceratops.
Blackfoot Confederacy warriors in Macleod in 1907
Fort Chipewyan, a trading post and regional headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Company in 1820
Downtown Calgary was one of several areas afflicted during the 2013 Alberta floods.
Population density of Alberta
Petroleum resources in Alberta
Cows in Rocky View. Nearly one-half of Canadian beef is produced in Alberta.
A canola field in Alberta
The Three Sisters at Bow Valley Provincial Park in Canmore
Bronco riding at the Calgary Stampede. The event is one of the world's largest rodeos
Distribution of Alberta's 6 specialized municipalities (red) and 74 rural municipalities, which include municipal districts (often named as counties) (orange), improvement districts (dark green) and special areas (light green) (2020)
The Alberta Legislative Building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers in St. Albert. The RCMP provides municipal policing throughout most of Alberta.
The University of Alberta in 2005. The institution is the oldest, and largest university in Alberta.
Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary is the largest hospital in Alberta.
Calgary International Airport, the province's largest airport by passenger traffic.
A Via Rail passenger train passing by freight trains in the background, at Jasper station
Highway 1 (the Trans-Canada Highway) at Alberta Highway 22 (Cowboy Trail).

The eastern part of the province is occupied by the Great Plains, while the western part borders the Rocky Mountains.

Wyoming

16 links

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

The first Fort Laramie as it looked before 1840 (painting from memory by Alfred Jacob Miller)
A backcountry road in the Sierra Madre Range of southeastern Wyoming, near Bridger Peak
Köppen climate types of Wyoming, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
On Interstate 80, leaving Utah
Autumn in the Bighorn Mountains
Teton Range
Green River valley
An enlargeable map of the 23 counties of Wyoming
Since 2016, Wyoming license plates feature Squaretop Mountain in the background
Cheyenne, Wyoming
Casper, Wyoming
Rock Springs, Wyoming
Evanston, Wyoming
Rawlins, Wyoming
Wyoming is home to 12 ski resorts, including Grand Targhee and Jackson Hole.
Wind farm in Uinta County
North Antelope Rochelle Mine, the largest estimated coal mine reserve in the world, as of 2013
A natural gas rig west of the Wind River Range
Major highways of Wyoming
Wind River Canyon
Wyoming terrain map
National Park Service sites map
The largest population centers are Cheyenne (southeast) and Casper.
Wyoming State Capitol building, Cheyenne
State flower of Wyoming: Indian paintbrush
The Rocky Mountain Herbarium at the University of Wyoming
Yellowstone National Park
Devils Tower National Monument
Thunder Basin National Grassland
Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge

Wyoming's western half is covered mostly by the ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern half of the state is high-elevation prairie called the High Plains.

New Mexico

12 links

State in the Southwestern United States.

State in the Southwestern United States.

Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range
Puebloan ruins at Chaco Canyon
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
White Sands National Park
Rio Grande Gorge and Bridge
Shiprock
Köppen climate types of New Mexico, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Greater roadrunner (the state bird of New Mexico)
Ancestral Pueblo territory shown in pink over New Mexico
Statue of Popé, leader of the Pueblo Revolt. The statue, entitled Po'pay, is among two statues depicting New Mexicans at the United States Capitol National Statuary Hall Collection, the other being Dennis Chávez.
Territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México when it belonged to Mexico in 1824
"The indigenous people of northern New Mexico" by Balduin Möllhausen, 1861.
A Hispano boy in Chamisal, 1940.
A homesteader and his children at the New Mexico Fair in Pie Town, New Mexico, 1940
New Mexico population density map
San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, is the oldest church structure in the continental U.S.
New Mexico state quarter, circulated in April 2008
An F-22 Raptor flown by the 49th Fighter Wing at Holloman AFB
Albuquerque Studios, built in 2007 for the rising demand of film production in the state
In this photo, the Mexico–United States border divides Sunland Park and the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
The Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad
The railway station in Tucumcari
The New Mexico Rail Runner Express is a commuter operation that runs along the Central Rio Grande Valley.
Downtown Santa Fe train station
Spaceport America terminal, The Gateway.
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The New Mexico Public Education Department is in Santa Fe.
Map of public New Mexico colleges and universities. New Mexico Higher Education Department.
Symbols of the Southwest: a string of dried chile pepper pods (a ristra) and a bleached white cow's skull hang in a market near Santa Fe
Interior of the Crosby Theater at the Santa Fe Opera, viewed from the mezzanine
Luminarias in the old mission church, Jemez State Monument
The Santa Ana Star Center
Zimmerman Library at The University of New Mexico
Zuhl Library at New Mexico State University
Walkway outside Golden Library at Eastern New Mexico University
Donnelly Library at New Mexico Highlands University
Party registration by county (February 2021):

It is one of the Mountain States of the southern Rocky Mountains, sharing the Four Corners region of the western U.S. with Utah, Colorado, and Arizona, and bordering Texas to the east and southeast, Oklahoma to the northeast, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora to the south.

Utah

13 links

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

Map showing Utah in 1838 when it was part of Mexico, Britannica 7th edition
Brigham Young led the first Mormon pioneers to the Great Salt Lake.
A sketch of Salt Lake City in 1860
Deseret Village recreates Utah pioneer life for tourists.
The Golden Spike where the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed in the U.S. on May 10, 1869, in Promontory, Utah
Children reading in Santa Clara, Utah, in 1940
Utah county boundaries
Köppen climate types of Utah, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Snow in Rose Park, Salt Lake City
The Rocky Mountain elk is the Utah state mammal.
The California gull is the Utah state bird.
Western black widow spider
Pando, considered one of the heaviest and oldest organisms on Earth.
Joshua trees, yuccas, and cholla cactus occupy the far southwest corner of the state in the Mojave Desert
"Welcome to Utah" sign
Utah population density map
The LDS Salt Lake Temple, the primary attraction in the city's Temple Square
First Presbyterian Church in Salt Lake City
Sri Sri Radha Krishna (Hindu) Temple
The Wasatch Front region has seen large growth and development despite the economic downturn. Shown is the City Creek Center project, a development in downtown Salt Lake City with a price tag of $1.5–2.5 billion.
One out of every 14 flash memory chips in the world is produced in Lehi, Utah.
Zion National Park in southern Utah is one of five national parks in the state.
Farms and ranches
Bryce Canyon National Park Amphitheater (winter view)
Mining has been a large industry in Utah since it was first settled. The Bingham Canyon Mine in Salt Lake County is one of the largest open pit mines in the world.
Salt Lake International Airport is the largest airport in Utah
FrontRunner commuter rail serves select cities from Ogden to Provo via Salt Lake City.
TRAX light rail serves Salt Lake County
Jake Garn (top-right), former Senator of Utah (1974–1993), and astronaut on Space Shuttle flight STS-51-D
The Utah State Capitol, Salt Lake City
The Scott Matheson Courthouse is the seat of the Utah Supreme Court.
The Huntsman Cancer Institute on the campus of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City
The Eyring Science Center on the campus of Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah
The Utah Jazz playing against the Houston Rockets
Robbie Russell playing for Real Salt Lake
Arches National Park
Pariette Wetlands
Little Cottonwood Canyon
Deer Creek Reservoir
American Fork Canyon
Kolob Canyons at Zion National Park
Salt Lake City
Logan
thumb|Ogden
Park City
Provo
Sandy
St. George
Layton
Monument Valley in southeastern Utah. This area was used to film many Hollywood Westerns.
The otherworldly look of the Bonneville Salt Flats has been used in many movies and commercials.

It is a rugged and geographically diverse state at the convergence of three distinct geological regions: the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, and the Colorado Plateau.

Ringrose Peak, Lake O'Hara, British Columbia

Canadian Rockies

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Ringrose Peak, Lake O'Hara, British Columbia
View of Lake Louise in Alberta
Mount Robson in British Columbia
Sodalite-aegirine-albite pegmatite specimen, Ice River Complex, an intrusion partly in Yoho National Park. Field of view ≈7.1 cm across.
Peyto Lake, Banff National Park

The Canadian Rockies (Rocheuses canadiennes) or Canadian Rocky Mountains, comprising both the Alberta Rockies and the B.C. Rockies, is the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains.

Southwestern United States

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Geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona, New Mexico, and adjacent portions of California, Colorado, Nevada, Oklahoma, Texas, and Utah.

Geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona, New Mexico, and adjacent portions of California, Colorado, Nevada, Oklahoma, Texas, and Utah.

Panoramic view of the southwestern United States
The Chihuahuan desert terrain mainly consists of basins broken by numerous small mountain ranges.
Saguaro cactus in the Sonoran Desert.
The Delicate Arch at Arches National Park
Four Corners Monument
Ancestral Puebloans ruins at Chaco Canyon
Map of Paleo-Indians in the American Southwest and Mexico
Oraibi pueblo
Narváez expedition (1528–36)
1846 map: Mexican Alta California (Upper California) in pink.
United States 1849–1850
United States 1850–1853
1860 Colorado Territory map
Utah Territory evolution 1850–1868
Confederate Arizona (outlined in blue)
Split of Arizona and New Mexico territories, in 1866, after small portion ceded to Nevada
The second transcontinental railroad: the "Santa Fe Route" – 1891.
Sandia Peak Ski Area, New Mexico
Map of the Southwestern United States as defined by the Learning Center of the American Southwest
The Wigwam. A dwelling used by various Native American tribes among the Southwestern US.
Fanciful drawing by Marguerite Martyn in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch of October 21, 1906, headed "Passing of the Country Store in the Southwest"
A Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia)
The High Plains in Eastern New Mexico, but also located in Eastern Colorado and West Texas
Desert bighorn sheep
Sonoran Desert terrain near Tucson
Chihuahuan Desert terrain near Carlsbad
Monument Canyon, some of the high desert lands found in Colorado
Grand Canyon from the South Rim
White Sands National Park, New Mexico
Little Finland in Gold Butte National Monument, Nevada
Runningback Josh Jacobs of the Las Vegas Raiders NFL team
T. J. McFarland pitcher for the Arizona Diamondbacks professional baseball team.
1. Phoenix (also the largest MSA)
2. El Paso (5th largest MSA)
3. Las Vegas (2nd largest MSA)
4. Albuquerque (also the 4th largest MSA)
5. Tucson (3rd largest MSA)

Within the Southwest U.S. region, the Colorado is bordered to the south by the Mogollon Rim and the Sonoran Desert, to the west by the Mojave Desert, and to the east by the Rocky Mountains, the Rio Grande Rift valley, and the Llano Estacado.

The Continental Divide in North America in red, among other major hydrological divides

Continental Divide of the Americas

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Principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas.

Principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas.

The Continental Divide in North America in red, among other major hydrological divides
The Continental Divide in Central America and South America
The Continental Divide in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of north central Colorado, taken from the International Space Station on October 28, 2008
Grays Peak, here in mid-June 2007. At 4352 m, it is the highest point of the Continental Divide in North America.
Historically, the Continental Divide was the line between British and US land possession in the disputed Oregon Country.
The Parting of the Waters in the Teton Wilderness. One fork flows to the Pacific Ocean while the other flows to the Atlantic.
The Continental Divide Trail often remains above the treeline and on the Divide, providing unobstructed views along its route.

Although there are many other hydrological divides in the Americas, the Continental Divide is by far the most prominent of these because it tends to follow a line of high peaks along the main ranges of the Rocky Mountains and Andes, at a generally much higher elevation than the other hydrological divisions.