Roger de Flor

Ruggiero da FlorRutger von Blum
Roger de Flor (1267 – 30 April 1305), also known as Ruggero/Ruggiero da Fiore or Rutger von Blum or Ruggero Flores, was an Italian military adventurer and condottiere active in Aragonese Sicily, Italy, and the Byzantine Empire.wikipedia
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Condottieri

condottierocondottierecondotta
Roger de Flor (1267 – 30 April 1305), also known as Ruggero/Ruggiero da Fiore or Rutger von Blum or Ruggero Flores, was an Italian military adventurer and condottiere active in Aragonese Sicily, Italy, and the Byzantine Empire.

Count of Malta

counties of MaltaCounty of MaltaGenoese Period
He was the commander of the Great Catalan Company and held the title Count of Malta.

Catalan Company

CatalanCatalansCatalan Grand Company
He was the commander of the Great Catalan Company and held the title Count of Malta.
The Catalan Company or the Great Catalan Company (Catalan: Gran Companyia Catalana, Latin: Exercitus francorum, Societatis exercitus catalanorum, Societatis cathalanorum, Magna Societas Catalanorum) was a company of mercenaries led by Roger de Flor in the early 14th century and hired by the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos to combat the increasing power of the Turks.

Megas doux

megaduxMegaduke
He was adopted into the imperial family, was married to the emperor's niece Maria Asenina (daughter of Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria), and was made grand duke (megas doux) and commander-in-chief of the army and the fleet.
As such, it was also sometimes conferred upon foreigners in imperial service, the most notable among these being the Italian Licario, who recovered many Aegean islands for Emperor Michael VIII, and Roger de Flor, head of the Catalan Company.

Almogavars

Almogavaralmogàversalmogàver
When the Peace of Caltabellotta brought the war to an end in 1302, Frederick was unwilling and unable to keep a mercenary army and was anxious to free the island from troops (called "Almogavars"), whom he had no longer the means of paying.
4,000 Almogavars, under the leadership of Roger de Flor ("Roger Blum", a former Knight Templar), formed the Catalan Company in the service of the Emperor of the East, Andronicus II Palaeologus.

Andronikos II Palaiologos

Andronikos IIAndronicus II PalaeologusAndronicus II
Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus of the Byzantine Empire was facing siege by the Ottoman Turks, an Islamic tribe approaching the capital of his empire after defeating his armies and ransacking most of his domains.
After the failure of the co-emperor Michael IX to stem the Turkish advance in Asia Minor in 1302 and the disastrous Battle of Bapheus, the Byzantine government hired the Catalan Company of Almogavars (adventurers from Catalonia) led by Roger de Flor to clear Byzantine Asia Minor of the enemy.

Knights Templar

TemplarsTemplarKnight Templar
At eight years old Roger de Flor was sent to sea in a galley belonging to the Knights Templars.

Peace of Caltabellotta

Treaty of CaltabellottaCaltabellotta
When the Peace of Caltabellotta brought the war to an end in 1302, Frederick was unwilling and unable to keep a mercenary army and was anxious to free the island from troops (called "Almogavars"), whom he had no longer the means of paying.
The consequences of this treaty meant that Roger de Flor and his Almogavars of the Catalan Company had to seek pay elsewhere.

Michael IX Palaiologos

Michael IXMichael IX PalaeologusMichael Palaiologos
In April 1305, he was assassinated in Adrianople (modern Edirne in East Thrace) by Andronikos' son Michael.
After successfully organizing the murder of the Catalan commander Roger de Flor in an elaborate plot, Michael IX led the Byzantine troops (augmented by Turks and 5–8,000 Alans) against the furious Catalans (who swore revenge for the assassination of their commander), but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Apros.

Ramon Muntaner

Crònica de Ramon MuntanerCrònicaMuntaner
The early history of the Catalan Company was chronicled by Ramon Muntaner, a member of the company, in his Crònica.
The Catalan Company was an army of light infantry under the leadership of Roger de Flor that was made up of Aragonese and Catalan mercenaries, known as Almogavars; Roger led the Company to Constantinople to help the Greeks against the Turks.

Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria

Ivan Asen IIIAsenIvan Asen
He was adopted into the imperial family, was married to the emperor's niece Maria Asenina (daughter of Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria), and was made grand duke (megas doux) and commander-in-chief of the army and the fleet.

Hranislav

Sausi Crisanislao
In May 1304 they again took the field, defeated the Turks at Germe along with Byzantine forces under Hranislav and rendered the important service of relieving Philadelphia, then invested and reduced to extremities by the Turks.
He was subordinate to the Western mercenary Roger de Flor and his Catalan Company, though he stood in charge of a separate military unit.

Tirant lo Blanch

Tirant lo BlancTirante el BlancoTirante the White
The life of Roger de Flor inspired the fictional character of Tirant lo Blanc, an epic romance written by Joanot Martorell, published in Valencia in 1490.
At times, it parallels the life and adventures of Roger de Flor, main leader of the mercenary Company of Almogàvers, which fought in Asia Minor and Greece, both for and against the Emperor of Byzantium.

Roger de Flor (opera)

Roger de Flor
The composer Ruperto Chapí used this text for his opera Roger de Flor (1878).
The opera deals with the story of the Catalan Company led to the Byzantine Empire by Roger de Flor.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
Roger de Flor (1267 – 30 April 1305), also known as Ruggero/Ruggiero da Fiore or Rutger von Blum or Ruggero Flores, was an Italian military adventurer and condottiere active in Aragonese Sicily, Italy, and the Byzantine Empire.

Brindisi

BrundisiumBrindisi, ItalyBrundusium
He was born in Brindisi in the Kingdom of Sicily, the second son of an Italian noblewoman of Brindisi and a German falconer named Richard von Blum (Blume means flower in German) in the service of Emperor Frederick II.

Kingdom of Sicily

SicilySicilianKing of Sicily
He was born in Brindisi in the Kingdom of Sicily, the second son of an Italian noblewoman of Brindisi and a German falconer named Richard von Blum (Blume means flower in German) in the service of Emperor Frederick II.

Germans

Germanethnic Germanethnic Germans
He was born in Brindisi in the Kingdom of Sicily, the second son of an Italian noblewoman of Brindisi and a German falconer named Richard von Blum (Blume means flower in German) in the service of Emperor Frederick II.

Falconry

falconerhawkingfalconers
He was born in Brindisi in the Kingdom of Sicily, the second son of an Italian noblewoman of Brindisi and a German falconer named Richard von Blum (Blume means flower in German) in the service of Emperor Frederick II.

Flower

flowersfloralflowering
He was born in Brindisi in the Kingdom of Sicily, the second son of an Italian noblewoman of Brindisi and a German falconer named Richard von Blum (Blume means flower in German) in the service of Emperor Frederick II.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
He was born in Brindisi in the Kingdom of Sicily, the second son of an Italian noblewoman of Brindisi and a German falconer named Richard von Blum (Blume means flower in German) in the service of Emperor Frederick II.

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick IIEmperor Frederick IIFrederick II of Hohenstaufen
He was born in Brindisi in the Kingdom of Sicily, the second son of an Italian noblewoman of Brindisi and a German falconer named Richard von Blum (Blume means flower in German) in the service of Emperor Frederick II.

Battle of Tagliacozzo

Tagliacozzosuccess at TagliacozzoTaglicozzo
Richard von Blum was killed fighting at the Battle of Tagliacozzo in 1268.

Galley

galleyswar galleyrow galley
At eight years old Roger de Flor was sent to sea in a galley belonging to the Knights Templars.

Siege of Acre (1291)

fall of AcreSiege of AcreAcre
After rescuing wealthy survivors during the siege of Acre by the Mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil in 1291, he went to Cyprus.