Roman–Persian Wars

Roman-Persian WarsRoman-Sassanid WarsRoman–Persian Warwarsbattles between the Roman and Parthian empiresPersianPersian-Roman Warsbattle-ground of Romans and Persiansbitter conflictsByzantine-Persian
The Roman–Persian Wars, also known as the Roman–Iranian Wars, were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.wikipedia
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Buffer state

bufferbuffer statesbuffer zone
Various vassal kingdoms and allied nomadic nations in the form of buffer states and proxies also played a role.

Roman Armenia

ArmeniaArmenia PrimaArmeniam
When Lucullus invaded Southern Armenia and led an attack against Tigranes in 69 BC, he corresponded with Phraates III to dissuade him from intervening.
Throughout this period, Armenia remained a bone of contention between Rome and the Parthian Empire, as well as the Sasanian Empire that succeeded the latter, and the casus belli for several of the Roman–Persian Wars.

Fall of the Sasanian Empire

Fall of Sassanidsfall of the Sassanid Empire empire's ultimate conquerors
The wars were ended by the Arab Muslim Conquests, which led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire and huge territorial losses for the Byzantine Empire, shortly after the end of the last war between them.
Although it fought many campaigns against the Romans/Byzantines in the west and the nomadic people in the east and north, the Sasanian Empire met its demise not by the Byzantine-Roman Empire, but by emerging Arab Muslims from across its southern borders.

History of Iran

PersiaIranian historyPersian
The Roman–Persian Wars, also known as the Roman–Iranian Wars, were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.
Most of the Sassanian Empire's lifespan it was overshadowed by the frequent Byzantine–Sasanian wars, a continuation of the Roman–Parthian Wars and the all-comprising Roman–Persian Wars; the last was the longest-lasting conflict in human history.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
During the 3rd century BC, the Parthians migrated from the Central Asian steppe into northern Iran.
Most of the era of the Sasanian Empire was overshadowed by the Roman–Persian Wars, which raged on the western borders at Anatolia, the Western Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and the Levant, for over 700 years.

Battle of Carrhae

Carrhaedefeat at Carrhaefailed campaign
The Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus led an invasion of Mesopotamia in 53 BC with catastrophic results; he and his son Publius were killed at the Battle of Carrhae by the Parthians under General Surena; this was the worst Roman defeat since the battle of Aurausio.
It is commonly seen as one of the earliest and most important battles between the Roman and Parthian empires and one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history.

Surena

General SurenaSuren
The Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus led an invasion of Mesopotamia in 53 BC with catastrophic results; he and his son Publius were killed at the Battle of Carrhae by the Parthians under General Surena; this was the worst Roman defeat since the battle of Aurausio.
It is commonly seen as one of the earliest and most important battles between the Roman and Parthian empires and one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history.

Roman–Parthian War of 58–63

Battle of RhandeiaRoman–Parthian Warcampaigns
Roman forces overthrew Tiridates and replaced him with a Cappadocian prince, triggering an inconclusive war.
This conflict was the first direct confrontation between Parthia and the Romans since Crassus' disastrous expedition and Mark Antony's campaigns a century earlier, and would be the first of a long series of wars between Rome and Iranian powers over Armenia (see Roman–Persian Wars).

Caucasus

CaucasianCaucasiathe Caucasus
Ruled by the Arsacid dynasty, the Parthians fended off several Seleucid attempts to regain their lost territories, and established several eponymous branches in the Caucasus, namely the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, the Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, and the Arsacid dynasty of Caucasian Albania.
Owing to the strong rivalry between Persia and Rome, and later Byzantium, the latter would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the region.

Peace of Nisibis (299)

Peace of NisibisTreaty of NisibisTreaty
The resulting peace settlement gave the Romans control of the area between the Tigris and the Greater Zab.
The Peace of Nisibis of 299, also known as the First Peace of Nisibis, was a peace treaty signed in 299 by the Roman and Sassanian empires, and concluded the Roman-Sassanian War of 296-299.

Dara (Mesopotamia)

DaraDarasDara Syrorum of the Syriacs
In 505, Anastasius ordered the building of a great fortified city at Dara.
Because of its great strategic importance, it featured prominently in the Roman-Persian conflicts of the 6th century, with the famous Battle of Dara taking place before its walls in 530.

Fall of Hatra

Siege of Hatra (240-241)capture of Hatracaptured Hatra
The struggle resumed and intensified under Ardashir's successor Shapur I, who invaded Mesopotamia and captured Hatra, a buffer state which had recently shifted its loyalty.
During the Roman-Persian Wars, the Kingdom of Araba was a buffer state between the Roman Empire and the Parthian Empire, and the dynasty was mostly under influence of the latter.

Nusaybin

NisibisNisibinNasibin
Parthian forces attacked key Roman positions, and the Roman garrisons at Seleucia, Nisibis and Edessa were expelled by the local inhabitants.
As a fortified frontier city, Nisibis played a major role in the Roman-Persian Wars.

Khosrow I

Khosrau IChosroes IChosroes
In 524–525 AD, Kavadh proposed that Justin I adopt his son, Khosrau, but the negotiations soon broke down.
Khosrow is also mentioned in several Greek sources, such as the ones of Procopius, Agathias and Menander Protector, who all give important information regarding Khosrow's management of the Irano-Roman wars.

James Howard-Johnston

Howard-Johnson
According to James Howard-Johnston, "from the third century BC to the early seventh century AD, the rival players [in the East] were grand polities with imperial pretensions, which had been able to establish and secure stable territories transcending regional divides".
Also, Howard-Johnston has done much research on Late Antiquity, especially the Roman-Persian Wars and the Coming of Islam.

Tamkhosrow

TamkhosrauTamkhusro
Khosrau sought peace but abandoned this initiative after Tamkhusro won a victory in Armenia, where Roman actions had alienated local inhabitants.
Tamkhosrau or Tamkhusro ("strong Khosrau", in Greek sources rendered as Ταμχοσρώ or Ταμχοσρόης, Tamchosroes), was a Sassanid Persian general active in the Roman–Persian Wars of the late 6th century.

Vassal state

vassalvassal statesvassals
Various vassal kingdoms and allied nomadic nations in the form of buffer states and proxies also played a role.

Diocletian

Emperor DiocletianDiocletian ReformsDiocletianus
After a brief peace early in Diocletian's reign, the Persians renewed hostilities when they invaded Armenia and defeated the Romans outside Carrhae in either 296 or 297.
Bahram II's gifts were widely recognized as symbolic of a victory in the ongoing conflict with Persia, and Diocletian was hailed as the "founder of eternal peace".

Siege of Constantinople (626)

Siege of ConstantinopleFirst Siege of Constantinoplebesieged Constantinople
Supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, together with the Avars and Slavs, the three unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626, while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius' brother Theodore.
610–641) the previous year and in 627, enabled Byzantium to regain its territories and end the destructive Roman–Persian Wars by enforcing a treaty with borders status quo c. 590.

Maurice's Balkan campaigns

Balkan CampaigncampaignsBalkan Campaigns
In 602 the Roman army campaigning in the Balkans mutinied under the leadership of Phocas, who succeeded in seizing the throne and then killed Maurice and his family.
As Maurice's forces were tied down in a war against the Persians caused by Justin II, (see Roman-Persian Wars for details), he could muster only a small army against the Avars and Slavs who were marauding in the Balkans.

Muslim conquest of the Levant

Muslim conquest of SyriaMuslim conquestSyria
Benefiting from their weakened condition, the Arab Muslim armies swiftly conquered the entire Sasanian Empire, and deprived the Eastern Roman Empire of its territories in the Levant, the Caucasus, Egypt, and the rest of North Africa.
During the last of the Roman-Persian Wars, beginning in 603, the Persians under Khosrau II had succeeded in occupying Syria, Palestine and Egypt for over a decade before being forced by the victories of Heraclius to conclude the peace of 628.

Resafa

SergiopolisRasafaRezeph
Khosrau launched another offensive in Mesopotamia in 542 when he attempted to capture Sergiopolis.
Resafa was located in the area of the Roman–Persian Wars, and was therefore a well-defended city that had massive walls that surrounded it without a break.

Lakhmids

LakhmidLakhmLakhmid Arabs
Belisarius was defeated by Persian and Lakhmid forces at the Battle of Callinicum in 531.
They were generally but intermittently the allies and clients of the Sassanian Empire, and participant in the Roman–Persian Wars.

Battle of Carrhae (296)

a severe defeatBattle of Carrhaefar from Carrhae
After a brief peace early in Diocletian's reign, the Persians renewed hostilities when they invaded Armenia and defeated the Romans outside Carrhae in either 296 or 297.

Battle of Resaena

249 invasion of Roman Empirebattlerecovered
Shapur I's forces were defeated at Resaena in 243 and the Romans regained Carrhae and Nisibis.