Roman Britain

RomanBritainBritanniaRomansRoman periodRoman timesRoman occupationRoman occupation of BritainRomano-BritishRoman era
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.wikipedia
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Insular Celts

CelticCeltic migrantsInsular Celtic
According to Caesar, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesar's enemies.
The Insular Celts are the speakers of the Insular Celtic languages, which comprise all the living Celtic languages as well as their precursors, but the term is mostly used in reference to the peoples of the British Iron Age prior to the Roman conquest, and their contemporaries in Ireland.

Great Britain

BritishBritainGBR
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, and later Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia.

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
It comprised almost the whole of England and Wales and, for a short period, southern Scotland.
The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius, subsequently conquering much of Britain, and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.

Trinovantes

TrinobantesIron AgeNew Troy
He received tribute, installed the friendly king Mandubracius over the Trinovantes, and returned to Gaul.
The Trinovantes or Trinobantes were one of the Celtic tribes of pre-Roman Britain.

Boudica

BoudiccaBoadiceaQueen Boadicea
Control over Wales was delayed by reverses and the effects of Boudica's uprising, but the Romans expanded steadily northward.
Boudica or Boudicca, also known as Boadicea (, also ) or Boudicea, and in Welsh as Buddug, was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61.

Roman conquest of Britain

Roman invasion of BritainRoman conquestRoman invasion
The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola (77–84), who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).

British Iron Age

Iron AgeBritainIron Age Britain
According to Caesar, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesar's enemies.
The Romanised culture is termed Roman Britain and is considered to supplant the British Iron Age.

Verica

Three years later, Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain and restore the exiled king Verica over the Atrebates.
Verica (early 1st century AD) was a British client king of the Roman Empire in the years preceding the Claudian invasion of 43 AD.

Gnaeus Julius Agricola

AgricolaGeneral AgricolaAgricolan
The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola (77–84), who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia.
Agricola began his military career in Britain, serving under governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus.

Hadrian

Emperor HadrianHadrianicPublius Aelius Hadrianus
Under the 2nd-century emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, two walls were built to defend the Roman province from the Caledonians, whose realms in the Scottish Highlands were never controlled.
He is known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia.

Caledonia

CaledonCaledonianLatin For Scotland
The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola (77–84), who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia.
Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire, roughly corresponding to modern-day Scotland.

End of Roman rule in Britain

Roman departure from BritainRoman withdrawal from BritainRoman withdrawal
The final Roman withdrawal from Britain occurred around 410; the native kingdoms are considered to have formed Sub-Roman Britain after that.
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.

Caledonians

CaledoniiCaledonianCaledonian Confederacy
In the summer of 84, Agricola faced the armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius.
The Caledonians (Caledones or Caledonii;, Kalēdōnes) or the Caledonian Confederacy were a Brittonic-speaking (Celtic) tribal confederacy in what is now Scotland during the Iron Age and Roman eras.

Catuvellauni

Catuvellaunian
The Romans defeated the Catuvellauni, and then organized their conquests as the Province of Britain (Provincia Britannia).
They appear as one of the civitates of Roman Britain in Ptolemy's Geography in the 2nd century, occupying the town of Verlamion (modern St Albans) and the surrounding areas of Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and southern Cambridgeshire.

Britannia Inferior

Lower BritainLower
Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces: Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior.
Britannia Inferior (Latin for "Lower Britain") was a new province carved out of Roman Britain around 197 during the reforms of Septimius Severus.

Britannia Superior

UpperBritain
Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces: Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior.
Britannia Superior (Latin for "Upper Britain") was one of the provinces of Roman Britain created around 197 by Emperor Septimius Severus immediately after winning a civil war against Clodius Albinus, a war fought to determine who would be the next emperor.

Britannia

BritainBrittaniaBritania
The Roman goddess Britannia became the female personification of Britain.
After the Roman conquest in 43 AD, Britannia meant Roman Britain, a province covering the island south of Caledonia (roughly Scotland).

Valentia (Roman Britain)

Valentia Roman province of Valentia
A fifth province, Valentia, is attested in the later 4th century.
Valentia (Latin for "Land of Valens") was probably one of the Roman provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" in late Antiquity.

Sub-Roman Britain

Britainsub-Romanpost-Roman
The final Roman withdrawal from Britain occurred around 410; the native kingdoms are considered to have formed Sub-Roman Britain after that.
The term "post-Roman Britain" is also used for the period, mainly in non-archaeological contexts; "sub-Roman" and "post-Roman" are both terms that apply to the old Roman province of Britannia, i.e. Britain south of the Forth–Clyde line.

Cornwall

CornishCornwall, EnglandCounty of Cornwall
Britain was known to the Classical world; the Greeks, Phoenicians and Carthaginians traded for Cornish tin in the 4th century BC.
Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, and there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there.

Eboracum

YorkEburacumRoman York
The Legio IX Hispana may have been permanently stationed, with records showing it at Eboracum (York) in 71 and on a building inscription there dated 108, before being destroyed in the east of the Empire, possibly during the Bar Kokhba revolt.
Eboracum (Latin /ebo'rakum/, English or ) was a fort and later a city in the Roman province of Britannia.

Tacitus

Publius Cornelius TacitusCornelius TacitusGaius Cornelius Tacitus
Battle casualties were estimated by Tacitus to be around the 10,000's on the Caledonian side and about 360 on the Roman side.
Tacitus' other writings discuss oratory (in dialogue format, see Dialogus de oratoribus), Germania (in De origine et situ Germanorum), and the life of his father-in-law, Agricola, the general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain, mainly focusing on his campaign in Britannia (De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae).

Colchester

Colchester, EssexColchester, EnglandColchester Town Hall
Plautius halted at the Thames and sent for Claudius, who arrived with reinforcements, including artillery and elephants, for the final march to the Catuvellaunian capital, Camulodunum (Colchester).
It was for a time the capital of Roman Britain, and is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.

Battle of Mons Graupius

Mons Graupius
In the summer of 84, Agricola faced the armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius.
Even though the Romans were outnumbered in their campaign against the tribes of Britain, they often had difficulties in getting their foes to face them in open battle.

Kent

Kent, EnglandCounty of KentCounty Kent
The first expedition was more a reconnaissance than a full invasion and gained a foothold on the coast of Kent but was unable to advance further because of storm damage to the ships and a lack of cavalry.
The extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.