Roman Empire under Augustus (31 BC – AD 14). Yellow: 31BC. dark green 31–19 BC, light green 19–9 BC, pale green 9–6 BC. mauve: client states
Province of Aegyptus in AD 125
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
The Roman empire under Hadrian (125) showing the provinces as then organised
A 1st-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes with a uraeus, as pharaoh (Louvre)
The Augustus of Prima Porta
(early 1st century AD)
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, under Trajan (117); imperial provinces are shaded green, senatorial provinces are shaded pink, and client states are shaded gray
The first generations of the imperial Severan dynasty depicted on the "Severan Tondo" from Egypt (Antikensammlung Berlin)
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
The new territorial division of tetrarchic system, promoted by Diocletian (300 ca.).
Statue of an orator, wearing a himation, from Heracleopolis Magna, in Middle Egypt (Egyptian Museum, Cairo)
The Barbarian Invasions consisted of the movement of (mainly) ancient Germanic peoples into Roman territory. Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the 4th century and lasted for many centuries, during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne. Historically, this event marked the transition between classical antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Bronze statue of a nude youth, from Athribis in Lower Egypt (British Museum, London)
The Roman Empire by 476
A 2nd-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes, as pharaoh (, Bad Deutsch-Altenburg)
The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period. Data source: Hanson, J. W. (2016), Cities database, (OXREP databases). Version 1.0. (link).
Encaustic and tempera painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 160, with a green sagum, gold fibula, white tunic, and red leather balteus (British Museum)
A segment of the ruins of Hadrian's Wall in northern England, overlooking Crag Lough
Encaustic painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 130, with a blue sagum, silver fibula, white tunic, and red balteus, with related grave goods (Antikensammlung Berlin)
A 5th-century papyrus showing a parallel Latin-Greek text of a speech by Cicero
Encaustic mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 100, with a blue sagum, fibula, white tunic with purple angusticlavus, and red balteus (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Bilingual Latin-Punic inscription at the theatre in Leptis Magna, Roman Africa (present-day Libya)
1st-century AD mummy excavated by William Flinders Petrie
A multigenerational banquet depicted on a wall painting from Pompeii (1st century AD)
Bust of Roman Nobleman, c. 30 BC–50 AD, Brooklyn Museum
Citizen of Roman Egypt (Fayum mummy portrait)
Roman trade with India started from Aegyptus according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century).
Dressing of a priestess or bride, Roman fresco from Herculaneum, Italy (30–40 AD)
Kushan ruler Huvishka with seated Roman-Egyptian god Serapis (ϹΑΡΑΠΟ, "Sarapo") wearing the modius.
Slave holding writing tablets for his master (relief from a 4th-century sarcophagus)
Roman emperor Trajan making offerings to Egyptian Gods, on the Roman Mammisi at the Dendera Temple complex, Egypt.
Cinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughter
North apse of the Red Monastery of Sohag
Fragment of a sarcophagus depicting Gordian III and senators (3rd century)
Possible personification of the province of Egypt from the Temple of Hadrian in Rome (National Roman Museum)
Condemned man attacked by a leopard in the arena (3rd-century mosaic from Tunisia)
Nilus, the river god of Egypt's Nile, with cornucopia, wheatsheaf, sphinx, and crocodile (Braccio Nuovo). Sculpture from Rome's Temple of Isis and Serapis.
Forum of Gerasa (Jerash in present-day Jordan), with columns marking a covered walkway (stoa) for vendor stalls, and a semicircular space for public speaking
Enthroned statue of the syncretic god Serapis with Cerberus, from Pozzuoli (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
Reconstructed statue of Augustus as Jove, holding scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD).
4th-century relief of the god Horus as a Roman cavalryman killing the crocodile, Setekh (Louvre)
Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161), wearing a toga (Hermitage Museum)
2nd-century relief of Anubis as a Roman infantryman in the Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138) showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 AD
Copper-alloy statuettes of Egyptian gods Anubis (left) and Horus (centre) as Roman officers with contrapposto stances (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)
Relief panel from Trajan's Column in Rome, showing the building of a fort and the reception of a Dacian embassy
5th-century Christian relief (Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst)
The Pula Arena in Croatia is one of the largest and most intact of the remaining Roman amphitheatres.
A possible 2nd-century papyrus fragment of the Gospel of Peter, from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (P. Oxy. LX 4009, Sackler Library)
Personification of the River Nile and his children, from the Temple of Serapis and Isis in Rome (1st century AD)
Coptic cross and chi-rho carved into older reliefs at the Temple of Isis at Philae
A green Roman glass cup unearthed from an Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb in Guangxi, southern China; the earliest Roman glassware found in China was discovered in a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou, dated to the early 1st century BC, and ostensibly came via the maritime route through the South China Sea
Roman-era Christian-themed wool-and-linen Egyptian textile (Louvre)
Solidus issued under Constantine II, and on the reverse Victoria, one of the last deities to appear on Roman coins, gradually transforming into an angel under Christian rule
Trilingual stela of G. Cornelius Gallus from Philae (Egyptian Museum)
Landscape resulting from the ruina montium mining technique at Las Médulas, Spain, one of the most important gold mines in the Roman Empire
Granite statue of Caracalla wearing nemes and uraeus cobra headdress (Alexandria National Museum)
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map") an Itinerarium, often assumed to be based on the Roman cursus publicus, the network of state-maintained roads.
"Pompey's Pillar", a monument erected by Diocletian ((r. 284 – 305)) in the Serapeum of Alexandria, represented in a mosaic from Sepphoris in Roman Palestine
A map of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greco-Roman Periplus
4th-century pendant with portrait of Alexander the Great as Zeus-Ammon with repoussé border (Walters Art Museum)
Workers at a cloth-processing shop, in a painting from the fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii
Folio 6 verso from the Golenischev papyrus of the Alexandrian World Chronicle, showing Theophilus of Alexandria standing triumphantly on top of the Serapeum with its bust of Serapis
Roman hunters during the preparations, set-up of traps, and in-action hunting near Tarraco
The Carmagnola, an Egyptian porphyry head on Venice's St Mark's Basilica thought to represent Justinian I
Amphitheatres of the Roman Empire
A map of the Near East in 565, showing Byzantine Egypt and its neighbors.
Construction on the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum (Italy), began during the reign of Vespasian.
Augustan-era krater in Egyptian alabaster, found in a Roman necropolis at San Prisco in 1897 (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
The Pont du Gard aqueduct, which crosses the river Gardon in southern France, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
The Byzantine Empire in 629 after Heraclius had reconquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt from the Sassanid Empire.
Cityscape from the Villa Boscoreale (60s AD)
The Mediterranean world in 650, after the Arabs had conquered Egypt and Syria from the Byzantines.
Aquae Sulis in Bath, England: architectural features above the level of the pillar bases are a later reconstruction.
Mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
Public toilets (latrinae) from Ostia Antica
1st-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Cleveland Museum of Art)
Reconstructed peristyle garden based on the House of the Vettii
1st/2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Birds and fountain within a garden setting, with oscilla (hanging masks) above, in a painting from Pompeii
2nd century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Bread stall, from a Pompeiian wall painting
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
An Ostian taberna for eating and drinking; the faded painting over the counter pictured eggs, olives, fruit and radishes.
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Still life on a 2nd-century Roman mosaic
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Wall painting depicting a sports riot at the amphitheatre of Pompeii, which led to the banning of gladiator combat in the town
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
A victor in his four-horse chariot
Mummy portrait (Antikensammlung Berlin)
The Zliten mosaic, from a dining room in present-day Libya, depicts a series of arena scenes: from top, musicians playing a Roman tuba, a water pipe organ and two horns; six pairs of gladiators with two referees; four beast fighters; and three convicts condemned to the beasts
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
Boys and girls playing ball games (2nd-century relief from the Louvre)
2nd-century mummy portrait from Faiyum (Galerie Cybèle, Paris)
So-called "bikini girls" mosaic from the Villa del Casale, Roman Sicily, 4th century
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Stone game board from Aphrodisias: boards could also be made of wood, with deluxe versions in costly materials such as ivory; game pieces or counters were bone, glass, or polished stone, and might be coloured or have markings or images
3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Brooklyn Museum)
Women from the wall painting at the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii
2nd-century mummy portrait (Getty Villa)
Claudius wearing an early Imperial toga (see a later, more structured toga above), and the pallium as worn by a priest of Serapis, sometimes identified as the emperor Julian
2nd-century mummy portrait (Pushkin Museum)
The Aldobrandini Wedding, 27 BC – 14 AD
2nd-century mummy portrait (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art)
The Wedding of Zephyrus and Chloris (54–68 AD, Pompeian Fourth Style) within painted architectural panels from the Casa del Naviglio
2nd–4th-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
The bronze Drunken Satyr, excavated at Herculaneum and exhibited in the 18th century, inspired an interest among later sculptors in similar "carefree" subjects.
2nd/3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
On the Ludovisi sarcophagus, an example of the battle scenes favoured during the Crisis of the Third Century, the "writhing and highly emotive" Romans and Goths fill the surface in a packed, anti-classical composition
2nd-century mummy portrait (Harvard Art Museums)
The Primavera of Stabiae, perhaps the goddess Flora
2nd-century mummy portrait probably from er-Rubayat (Getty Villa)
The Triumph of Neptune floor mosaic from Africa Proconsularis (present-day Tunisia), celebrating agricultural success with allegories of the Seasons, vegetation, workers and animals viewable from multiple perspectives in the room (latter 2nd century)
Mummy Mask of a Man, early 1st century AD, 72.57, Brooklyn Museum
Actor dressed as a king and two muses. Fresco from Herculaneum, 30–40 AD
Canopic jar from the 3rd or 4th century (National Archaeological Museum, Florence)
All-male theatrical troupe preparing for a masked performance, on a mosaic from the House of the Tragic Poet
Funerary masks uncovered in Faiyum, 1st century.
Pride in literacy was displayed in portraiture through emblems of reading and writing, as in this example of a couple from Pompeii (Portrait of Paquius Proculo).
2nd-century statuette of Horus as Roman general (Louvre)
Reconstruction of a writing tablet: the stylus was used to inscribe letters into the wax surface for drafts, casual letterwriting, and schoolwork, while texts meant to be permanent were copied onto papyrus.
1st–4th-century statuette of Horus as a Roman soldier (Louvre)
A teacher with two students, as a third arrives with his loculus, a writing case that would contain pens, ink pot, and a sponge to correct errors
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting the Academy of Plato
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite from Lower Egypt (Louvre)
Portrait of a literary woman from Pompeii (ca. 50 AD)
1st–4th-century statuette of Isis lactans (Louvre)
A fresco in Pompeii depicting a poet (thought to be Euphorion) and a female reading a diptych
Isis lactans: the mother goddess suckles Harpocrates (Pio-Clementino Museum)
Statue in Constanța, Romania (the ancient colony Tomis), commemorating Ovid's exile
1st/2nd-century Parian marble statue of Anubis (Gregorian Egyptian Museum)
Brescia Casket, an ivory box with Biblical imagery (late 4th century)
2nd/3rd-century mosaic of Anubis from Ariminum (Museo della Città, Rimini)
Silver cup, from the Boscoreale Treasure (early 1st century AD)
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone grave stela (Luxor Museum)
Finely decorated Gallo-Roman terra sigillata bowl
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone stela (Luxor Museum)
Gold earrings with gemstones, 3rd century
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone relief (Luxor Museum)
Glass cage cup from the Rhineland, 4th century
Hadrian coin celebrating Aegyptus Province, struck c. 135. In the obverse, Egypt is personified as a reclining woman holding the sistrum of Hathor. Her left elbow rests on a basket of grain, while an ibis stands on the column at her feet.
Dionysus (Bacchus) with long torch sitting on a throne, with Helios (Sol), Aphrodite (Venus) and other gods. Fresco from Pompeii.
Zenobia coin reporting her title as queen of Egypt (Augusta), and showing her diademed and draped bust on a crescent. The obverse shows a standing figure of Ivno Regina (Juno) holding a patera in her right hand and a sceptre in her left hand, with a peacock at her feet and a brilliant star on the left.
A Roman priest, his head ritually covered with a fold of his toga, extends a patera in a gesture of libation (2nd–3rd century)
Statuettes representing Roman and Gallic deities, for personal devotion at private shrines
thumb|upright=0.6|The Pompeii Lakshmi, an ivory statuette from the Indian subcontinent found in the ruins of Pompeii
Relief from the Arch of Titus in Rome depicting a menorah and other spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem carried in Roman triumph.
This funerary stele from the 3rd century is among the earliest Christian inscriptions, written in both Greek and Latin: the abbreviation D.M. at the top refers to the Di Manes, the traditional Roman spirits of the dead, but accompanies Christian fish symbolism.
The Pantheon in Rome, a Roman temple originally built under Augustus and later rebuilt under Hadrian in the 2nd century, dedicated to Rome's polytheistic religion before its conversion into a Catholic church in the 7th century

The Roman provinces (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire.

- Roman province

Egypt (Aegyptus ; Aígyptos ) was a subdivision of the Roman Empire from Rome's annexation of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in 30 BC to its loss by the Byzantine Empire to the Islamic conquests in AD 641.

- Roman Egypt

From the accession of Caesar Augustus as the first Roman emperor to the military anarchy of the 3rd century, it was a principate with Italy as the metropole of its provinces and the city of Rome as its sole capital.

- Roman Empire

Civil wars and proscriptions continued, eventually culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The following year, Octavian conquered the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power then became unassailable, and in 27 BC, the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title of Augustus, effectively making him the first Roman emperor.

- Roman Empire

30 BC – Aegyptus, taken over by Augustus after his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. It was the first imperial province in that it was Augustus' own domain as the Egyptians recognised him as their new pharaoh. Its proper initial name was Alexandrea et Aegyptus. It was governed by Augustus' praefectus, Alexandreae et Aegypti.

- Roman province

Roman Egypt was the only Roman province whose governor was of equestrian rank in the Roman social order; all others were of the senatorial class and served as Roman senators, including former Roman consuls, but the prefect of Egypt had more or less equivalent civil and military powers (imperium) to a proconsul, since a Roman law (a lex) granted him "proconsular imperium" (imperium ad similitudinem proconsulis).

- Roman Egypt

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Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century

Augustus

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The first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

The first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century
A denarius from 44 BC, showing Julius Caesar on the obverse and the goddess Venus on the reverse of the coin. Caption: CAESAR IMP. M. / L. AEMILIVS BVCA
The Death of Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini. On 15 March 44 BC, Octavius's adoptive father Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, Rome
A bust of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated ca. 30 BC. Capitoline Museums, Rome
Roman aureus bearing the portraits of Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right), issued in 41 BC to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Lepidus in 43 BC. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the regulation of the Republic". Caption: M. ANT. IMP. AVG. III VIR RPC M. BARBAT. Q. P. / CAESAR IMP. PONT. III VIR PRC. The M. Barbatius Pollio was a moneyer
A denarius minted c. 18 BC. Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS; reverse: comet of eight rays with tail upward; DIVVS IVLIV[S] (DIVINE JULIUS).
Fresco paintings inside the House of Augustus, his residence during his reign as emperor.
A denarius of Sextus Pompeius, minted for his victory over Octavian's fleet. Obverse: the place where he defeated Octavian, Pharus of Messina decorated with a statue of Neptune; before that galley adorned with aquila, sceptre & trident; MAG. PIVS IMP. ITER. Reverse, the monster Scylla, her torso of dogs and fish tails, wielding a rudder as a club. Caption: PRAEF[ECTUS] CLAS[SIS] ET ORAE MARIT[IMAE] EX S. C.
Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema
The Battle of Actium, by Laureys a Castro, painted 1672, National Maritime Museum, London.
This mid-1st-century-BC Roman wall painting in Pompeii, Italy, showing Venus holding a cupid is most likely a depiction of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt as Venus Genetrix, with her son Caesarion as the cupid, similar in appearance to the now lost statue of Cleopatra erected by Julius Caesar in the Temple of Venus Genetrix (within the Forum of Caesar). The owner of the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii walled off the room with this painting, most likely in immediate reaction to the execution of Caesarion on orders of Augustus in 30 BC, when artistic depictions of Caesarion would have been considered a sensitive issue for the ruling regime.
Aureus of Octavian, circa 30 BC, British Museum.
Octavian as a magistrate. The statue's marble head was made c. 30–20 BC, the body sculpted in the 2nd century AD (Louvre, Paris).
The Arch of Augustus in Rimini (Ariminum), dedicated to Augustus by the Roman Senate in 27 BC, one of the oldest surviving Roman triumphal arches
Portraits of Augustus show the emperor with idealized features
The Blacas Cameo showing Augustus wearing a gorgoneion on a three layered sardonyx cameo, AD 20–50
Augustus as Jupiter, holding a scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD)
Head of Augustus as pontifex maximus, Roman artwork of the late Augustan period, last decade of the 1st century BC
A colossal statue of Augustus from the Augusteum of Herculaneum, seated and wearing a laurel wreath.
Bust of Augustus wearing the Civic Crown, at Glyptothek, Munich
Bust of Tiberius, a successful military commander under Augustus before he was designated as his heir and successor
Muziris in the Chera Kingdom of Southern India, as shown in the Tabula Peutingeriana, with depiction of a "Temple of Augustus" ("Templum Augusti"), an illustration of Indo-Roman relations in the period
The victorious advance of Hermann, depiction of the 9 AD Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, by Peter Janssen, 1873
Augustus in a late 16th-century copper engraving by Giovanni Battista Cavalieri. From the book Romanorum Imperatorum effigies (1583), preserved in the Municipal Library of Trento (Italy)
The deified Augustus hovers over Tiberius and other Julio-Claudians in the Great Cameo of France
The Mausoleum of Augustus restored (2021)
The Virgin Mary and Child, the prophetess Sibyl Tivoli bottom left and the emperor Augustus in the bottom right, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry. The likeness of Augustus is that of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos
The Augustus cameo at the center of the Medieval Cross of Lothair
Augustus as Roman pharaoh in an Egyptian-style depiction, a stone carving of the Kalabsha Temple in Nubia
Coin of Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises, in the style of Roman emperor Augustus. British Museum. AE dichalkon, Chach, c. first half of 1st. Century, Weight:3.26 gm., Diam:18 mm. Caption: obverse in Greek ΚΟΖΟΛΑ ΚΑΔΑΦΕΣ ΧΟΡΑΝΟΥ ΖΑΟΟΥ, reverse in Kharoshti.
Fragment of a bronze equestrian statue of Augustus, 1st century AD, National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Virgil reading the Aeneid to Augustus and Octavia, by Jean-Joseph Taillasson, 1787
Coin of Augustus found at the Pudukottai hoard, from an ancient Tamil country, Pandyan Kingdom of present-day Tamil Nadu in India, a testimony to Indo-Roman trade. British Museum. Caption: AVGVSTVS DIVI F[ILIVS]. (The vertical slice, not part of the original design, was likely an old test cut to make sure the coin was solid rather than a fourrée.)
1st century coin of the Himyarite Kingdom, southern coast of the Arabian peninsula. This is also an imitation of a coin of Augustus.
Close up on the sculpted detail of the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), 13 BC to 9 BC
The Temple of Augustus and Livia in Vienne, late 1st century BC
The Meroë Head of Augustus, bronze Roman portraiture bust from Meroë, Kingdom of Kush (Nubia, modern Sudan), 27–25 BC
Portrait of Augustus; Istanbul Archaeology Museums, Turkey

His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated a legacy as one of the greatest leaders in human history.

Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, and completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania.

At the same time, Octavian could not simply give up his authority without risking further civil wars among the Roman generals and, even if he desired no position of authority whatsoever, his position demanded that he look to the well-being of the city of Rome and the Roman provinces.

The Berlin Cleopatra, a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a royal diadem, mid-1st century BC (around the time of her visits to Rome in 46–44 BC), discovered in an Italian villa along the Via Appia and now located in the Altes Museum in Germany.

Cleopatra

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Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.

Queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.

The Berlin Cleopatra, a Roman sculpture of Cleopatra wearing a royal diadem, mid-1st century BC (around the time of her visits to Rome in 46–44 BC), discovered in an Italian villa along the Via Appia and now located in the Altes Museum in Germany.
Hellenistic Kingdoms that emerged after the death of Alexander the Great
Hellenistic portrait of Ptolemy XII Auletes, the father of Cleopatra, located in the Louvre, Paris
Most likely a posthumously painted portrait of Cleopatra with red hair and her distinct facial features, wearing a royal diadem and pearl-studded hairpins, from Roman Herculaneum, Italy, 1st century AD
The Roman Republic (green) and Ptolemaic Egypt (yellow) in 40 BC
A Roman portrait of Pompey made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original from 70 to 60 BC, and located in the Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
The Tusculum portrait, a contemporary Roman sculpture of Julius Caesar located in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
Cleopatra and Caesar (1866), a painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
Egyptian portrait of a Ptolemaic queen, possibly Cleopatra, c. 51–30 BC, located in the Brooklyn Museum
Cleopatra's Gate in Tarsos (now Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey), the site where she met Mark Antony in 41 BC
A Roman marble bust of the consul and triumvir Mark Antony, late 1st century AD, Vatican Museums
the 1885 painting
Roman aureus bearing the portraits of Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right), issued in 41 BC to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in 43 BC
A denarius minted by Antony in 34 BC with his portrait on the obverse, which bears the inscription reading "ANTONIVS ARMENIA DEVICTA", alluding to his Armenian campaign. The reverse features Cleopatra, with the inscription "CLEOPATR[AE] REGINAE REGVM FILIORVM REGVM". The mention of her children on the reverse refers to the Donations of Alexandria.
A papyrus document dated February 33 BC granting tax exemptions to a person in Egypt and containing the signature of Cleopatra written by an official, but with "γινέσθωι" ( "make it happen" or "so be it") added in Greek, likely by the queen's own hand
A reconstructed statue of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated c. 30 BC
A Roman painting from the House of Giuseppe II in Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra, wearing her royal diadem and consuming poison in an act of suicide, while her son Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her
The Death of Cleopatra (1658), by Guido Cagnacci
The Death of Cleopatra (1796–1797), by Jean-Baptiste Regnault
Cleopatra on a coin of 40 drachms from 51 to 30 BC, minted at Alexandria; on the obverse is a portrait of Cleopatra wearing a diadem, and on the reverse an inscription reading "ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ" with an eagle standing on a thunderbolt.
Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners (1887), by Alexandre Cabanel
A restructured marble Roman statue of Cleopatra wearing a diadem and 'melon' hairstyle similar to coinage portraits, found along the Via Cassia near the, Rome, and now located in the Museo Pio-Clementino
a life-sized Roman-style statue of Cleopatra
the Berlin portrait
Cleopatra and Mark Antony on the obverse and reverse, respectively, of a silver tetradrachm struck at the Antioch mint in 36 BC, with Greek legends: BACIΛΙCCA KΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑ ΘΕΑ ΝΕΩΤΕΡΑ, ANTΩNIOC AYTOKPATΩP TPITON TPIΩN ANΔPΩN.
Possible sculpted head of Cleopatra VII wearing an Egyptian-style vulture headdress, discovered in Rome, either Roman or Hellenistic Egyptian art, Parian marble, 1st century BC, from the Capitoline Museums{{sfnp|Fletcher|2008|pp=199–200}}{{sfnp|Ashton|2001a|p=217}}
this painting at Pompeii
woman in the painting
Another painting from Pompeii
depicted Cleopatra committing suicide
the white skin of her face and neck set against a stark black background
A possible depiction of Mark Antony on the Portland Vase being lured by Cleopatra, straddling a serpent, while Anton, Antony's alleged ancestor, looks on and Eros flies above
Cleopatra and her son Caesarion at the Temple of Dendera
The Banquet of Cleopatra (1744), by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, now in the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
depiction of her and Antony
The Triumph of Cleopatra (1821), by William Etty, now in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight, England
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums{{sfnp|Raia|Sebesta|2017}}{{sfnp|Grout|2017b|}}{{sfnp|Roller|2010|pp=174–175}}
Profile view of the Vatican Cleopatra
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum{{sfnp|Raia|Sebesta|2017}}{{sfnp|Grout|2017b|}}{{sfnp|Roller|2010|pp=174–175}}
Profile view of the Berlin Cleopatra
A granite Egyptian bust of Cleopatra from the Royal Ontario Museum, mid-1st century BC
A marble statue of Cleopatra with her cartouche inscribed on the upper right arm and wearing a diadem with a triple uraeus, from the Metropolitan Museum of Art{{sfnp|Ashton|2001b|p=165}}

After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, marking the end of the second to last Hellenistic state and the age that had lasted since the reign of Alexander (336–323 BC).

With the fall of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, the Roman province of Egypt was established, marking the end of the Hellenistic period.

Roman governor

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A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.

Much like the senatorial province of Africa, the equestrian province of Aegyptus (Egypt) was an exception to the general rule of legions only being stationed in imperial provinces.

Judaea (Roman province)

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Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, by Jean Fouquet
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Old Roman era gate, Bab al-'Amud in Jerusalem's Old City (today part of Damascus Gate)
Roman stepped road in the Shephelah hill country of Judea (adjacent to Highway 375)

Judaea (Iudaea; Ἰουδαία Iudaia) was a Roman province which incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

Its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, but it controlled the land and coastal sea routes to the "bread basket" of Egypt and was a buffer against the Parthian Empire.

Judea in the early Roman period was divided into five administrative districts with centers in Jerusalem, Gadara, Amathus, Jericho, and Sepphoris.

The Roman Empire c. 125 AD, with the province of Arabia Petraea highlighted.

Arabia Petraea

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The Roman Empire c. 125 AD, with the province of Arabia Petraea highlighted.
The Roman Empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled AD 117–138), showing, in western Asia, the imperial province of Arabia Petraea (Jordan/NW Saudi Arabia/Sinai). A single legion was deployed there in 125 AD.
Petra, one of the major cities of Arabian Petra, now designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
A map showing Trajan control of Arabia until Hegra (actual Mada'in Salih).
Bostra, an important centre of trade

Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province (Provincia Arabia; العربية البترائية; ) or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the 2nd century.

It was bordered on the north by Syria, on the west by Iudaea (merged with Syria from AD 135) and Aegyptus, and on the south and east by the rest of Arabia, known as Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix.

Aureus of Emperor Aurelian with inscription IMP. C. L. DOM. AVRELIANVS P. F. AVG.

Aurelian

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Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; 9 September 214c.

Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; 9 September 214c.

Aureus of Emperor Aurelian with inscription IMP. C. L. DOM. AVRELIANVS P. F. AVG.
Bust of a Roman Emperor historically thought of as a bust of Claudius II. However, there is a possibility that this bust is actually the bust of Aurelian, considering the dissimilarity between it and confirmed statues of Claudius II, especially those unearthed in the nearby Brescia Temple, and the similarity of the features to depictions of Aurelian on Roman currency.
Ruins of Imperial Palace at Sirmium, today in Sremska Mitrovica
Aurelian was a military commander, and during his reign he tried to keep legions' fidelity; this coin celebrated the CONCORDIA MILITVM, "concord of the soldiers" – in other words, "harmony between the emperor and the military". Legend: IMP. C. AVRELIANVS AVG. / CONCORDIA MILITVM – XXIQ mint
The Porta Asinaria, a gate in the Aurelian Walls
The Roman Empire by 271 A.D before the reconquest of the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire by Aurelian
The route of Aurelian's campaign against Palmyra.
Aurelian, personification of Sol, defeats the Palmyrene Empire, and celebrates ORIENS AVG – oriens Augusti: the rising sun/star of Augustus. Legend: IMP. AVRELIANVS AVG. / ORIENS AVG. – XIR.
A Radiate of Aurelian, obverse. Legend: IMP. AVRELIANVS AVG.
A Radiate of Aurelian, reverse. Legend: ORIENS AVG. – EXXI.

As emperor, he won an unprecedented series of military victories which reunited the Roman Empire after it had nearly disintegrated under the pressure of barbarian invasions and internal revolts.

Aurelian used the resources gained from the battles to enrich the provinces.

Zenobia had carved out her own empire, encompassing Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor.