A report on Roman Empire and Roman Egypt

Province of Aegyptus in AD 125
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
A 1st-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes with a uraeus, as pharaoh (Louvre)
The Augustus of Prima Porta
(early 1st century AD)
The first generations of the imperial Severan dynasty depicted on the "Severan Tondo" from Egypt (Antikensammlung Berlin)
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
Statue of an orator, wearing a himation, from Heracleopolis Magna, in Middle Egypt (Egyptian Museum, Cairo)
The Barbarian Invasions consisted of the movement of (mainly) ancient Germanic peoples into Roman territory. Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the 4th century and lasted for many centuries, during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne. Historically, this event marked the transition between classical antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Bronze statue of a nude youth, from Athribis in Lower Egypt (British Museum, London)
The Roman Empire by 476
A 2nd-century AD Roman emperor wearing nemes, as pharaoh (, Bad Deutsch-Altenburg)
The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period. Data source: Hanson, J. W. (2016), Cities database, (OXREP databases). Version 1.0. (link).
Encaustic and tempera painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 160, with a green sagum, gold fibula, white tunic, and red leather balteus (British Museum)
A segment of the ruins of Hadrian's Wall in northern England, overlooking Crag Lough
Encaustic painted mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 130, with a blue sagum, silver fibula, white tunic, and red balteus, with related grave goods (Antikensammlung Berlin)
A 5th-century papyrus showing a parallel Latin-Greek text of a speech by Cicero
Encaustic mummy portrait of a Roman officer c. 100, with a blue sagum, fibula, white tunic with purple angusticlavus, and red balteus (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Bilingual Latin-Punic inscription at the theatre in Leptis Magna, Roman Africa (present-day Libya)
1st-century AD mummy excavated by William Flinders Petrie
A multigenerational banquet depicted on a wall painting from Pompeii (1st century AD)
Bust of Roman Nobleman, c. 30 BC–50 AD, Brooklyn Museum
Citizen of Roman Egypt (Fayum mummy portrait)
Roman trade with India started from Aegyptus according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century).
Dressing of a priestess or bride, Roman fresco from Herculaneum, Italy (30–40 AD)
Kushan ruler Huvishka with seated Roman-Egyptian god Serapis (ϹΑΡΑΠΟ, "Sarapo") wearing the modius.
Slave holding writing tablets for his master (relief from a 4th-century sarcophagus)
Roman emperor Trajan making offerings to Egyptian Gods, on the Roman Mammisi at the Dendera Temple complex, Egypt.
Cinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughter
North apse of the Red Monastery of Sohag
Fragment of a sarcophagus depicting Gordian III and senators (3rd century)
Possible personification of the province of Egypt from the Temple of Hadrian in Rome (National Roman Museum)
Condemned man attacked by a leopard in the arena (3rd-century mosaic from Tunisia)
Nilus, the river god of Egypt's Nile, with cornucopia, wheatsheaf, sphinx, and crocodile (Braccio Nuovo). Sculpture from Rome's Temple of Isis and Serapis.
Forum of Gerasa (Jerash in present-day Jordan), with columns marking a covered walkway (stoa) for vendor stalls, and a semicircular space for public speaking
Enthroned statue of the syncretic god Serapis with Cerberus, from Pozzuoli (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
Reconstructed statue of Augustus as Jove, holding scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD).
4th-century relief of the god Horus as a Roman cavalryman killing the crocodile, Setekh (Louvre)
Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161), wearing a toga (Hermitage Museum)
2nd-century relief of Anubis as a Roman infantryman in the Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138) showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 AD
Copper-alloy statuettes of Egyptian gods Anubis (left) and Horus (centre) as Roman officers with contrapposto stances (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)
Relief panel from Trajan's Column in Rome, showing the building of a fort and the reception of a Dacian embassy
5th-century Christian relief (Staatliche Sammlung für Ägyptische Kunst)
The Pula Arena in Croatia is one of the largest and most intact of the remaining Roman amphitheatres.
A possible 2nd-century papyrus fragment of the Gospel of Peter, from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (P. Oxy. LX 4009, Sackler Library)
Personification of the River Nile and his children, from the Temple of Serapis and Isis in Rome (1st century AD)
Coptic cross and chi-rho carved into older reliefs at the Temple of Isis at Philae
A green Roman glass cup unearthed from an Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb in Guangxi, southern China; the earliest Roman glassware found in China was discovered in a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou, dated to the early 1st century BC, and ostensibly came via the maritime route through the South China Sea
Roman-era Christian-themed wool-and-linen Egyptian textile (Louvre)
Solidus issued under Constantine II, and on the reverse Victoria, one of the last deities to appear on Roman coins, gradually transforming into an angel under Christian rule
Trilingual stela of G. Cornelius Gallus from Philae (Egyptian Museum)
Landscape resulting from the ruina montium mining technique at Las Médulas, Spain, one of the most important gold mines in the Roman Empire
Granite statue of Caracalla wearing nemes and uraeus cobra headdress (Alexandria National Museum)
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map") an Itinerarium, often assumed to be based on the Roman cursus publicus, the network of state-maintained roads.
"Pompey's Pillar", a monument erected by Diocletian ((r. 284 – 305)) in the Serapeum of Alexandria, represented in a mosaic from Sepphoris in Roman Palestine
A map of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greco-Roman Periplus
4th-century pendant with portrait of Alexander the Great as Zeus-Ammon with repoussé border (Walters Art Museum)
Workers at a cloth-processing shop, in a painting from the fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii
Folio 6 verso from the Golenischev papyrus of the Alexandrian World Chronicle, showing Theophilus of Alexandria standing triumphantly on top of the Serapeum with its bust of Serapis
Roman hunters during the preparations, set-up of traps, and in-action hunting near Tarraco
The Carmagnola, an Egyptian porphyry head on Venice's St Mark's Basilica thought to represent Justinian I
Amphitheatres of the Roman Empire
A map of the Near East in 565, showing Byzantine Egypt and its neighbors.
Construction on the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum (Italy), began during the reign of Vespasian.
Augustan-era krater in Egyptian alabaster, found in a Roman necropolis at San Prisco in 1897 (National Archaeological Museum, Naples)
The Pont du Gard aqueduct, which crosses the river Gardon in southern France, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
The Byzantine Empire in 629 after Heraclius had reconquered Syria, Palestine and Egypt from the Sassanid Empire.
Cityscape from the Villa Boscoreale (60s AD)
The Mediterranean world in 650, after the Arabs had conquered Egypt and Syria from the Byzantines.
Aquae Sulis in Bath, England: architectural features above the level of the pillar bases are a later reconstruction.
Mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
Public toilets (latrinae) from Ostia Antica
1st-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Cleveland Museum of Art)
Reconstructed peristyle garden based on the House of the Vettii
1st/2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Birds and fountain within a garden setting, with oscilla (hanging masks) above, in a painting from Pompeii
2nd century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Bread stall, from a Pompeiian wall painting
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
An Ostian taberna for eating and drinking; the faded painting over the counter pictured eggs, olives, fruit and radishes.
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Still life on a 2nd-century Roman mosaic
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
Wall painting depicting a sports riot at the amphitheatre of Pompeii, which led to the banning of gladiator combat in the town
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
A victor in his four-horse chariot
Mummy portrait (Antikensammlung Berlin)
The Zliten mosaic, from a dining room in present-day Libya, depicts a series of arena scenes: from top, musicians playing a Roman tuba, a water pipe organ and two horns; six pairs of gladiators with two referees; four beast fighters; and three convicts condemned to the beasts
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
Boys and girls playing ball games (2nd-century relief from the Louvre)
2nd-century mummy portrait from Faiyum (Galerie Cybèle, Paris)
So-called "bikini girls" mosaic from the Villa del Casale, Roman Sicily, 4th century
2nd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Antikensammlung Berlin)
Stone game board from Aphrodisias: boards could also be made of wood, with deluxe versions in costly materials such as ivory; game pieces or counters were bone, glass, or polished stone, and might be coloured or have markings or images
3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Brooklyn Museum)
Women from the wall painting at the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii
2nd-century mummy portrait (Getty Villa)
Claudius wearing an early Imperial toga (see a later, more structured toga above), and the pallium as worn by a priest of Serapis, sometimes identified as the emperor Julian
2nd-century mummy portrait (Pushkin Museum)
The Aldobrandini Wedding, 27 BC – 14 AD
2nd-century mummy portrait (Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art)
The Wedding of Zephyrus and Chloris (54–68 AD, Pompeian Fourth Style) within painted architectural panels from the Casa del Naviglio
2nd–4th-century mummy portrait from Hawara (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek)
The bronze Drunken Satyr, excavated at Herculaneum and exhibited in the 18th century, inspired an interest among later sculptors in similar "carefree" subjects.
2nd/3rd-century mummy portrait from er-Rubayat (Walters Art Museum)
On the Ludovisi sarcophagus, an example of the battle scenes favoured during the Crisis of the Third Century, the "writhing and highly emotive" Romans and Goths fill the surface in a packed, anti-classical composition
2nd-century mummy portrait (Harvard Art Museums)
The Primavera of Stabiae, perhaps the goddess Flora
2nd-century mummy portrait probably from er-Rubayat (Getty Villa)
The Triumph of Neptune floor mosaic from Africa Proconsularis (present-day Tunisia), celebrating agricultural success with allegories of the Seasons, vegetation, workers and animals viewable from multiple perspectives in the room (latter 2nd century)
Mummy Mask of a Man, early 1st century AD, 72.57, Brooklyn Museum
Actor dressed as a king and two muses. Fresco from Herculaneum, 30–40 AD
Canopic jar from the 3rd or 4th century (National Archaeological Museum, Florence)
All-male theatrical troupe preparing for a masked performance, on a mosaic from the House of the Tragic Poet
Funerary masks uncovered in Faiyum, 1st century.
Pride in literacy was displayed in portraiture through emblems of reading and writing, as in this example of a couple from Pompeii (Portrait of Paquius Proculo).
2nd-century statuette of Horus as Roman general (Louvre)
Reconstruction of a writing tablet: the stylus was used to inscribe letters into the wax surface for drafts, casual letterwriting, and schoolwork, while texts meant to be permanent were copied onto papyrus.
1st–4th-century statuette of Horus as a Roman soldier (Louvre)
A teacher with two students, as a third arrives with his loculus, a writing case that would contain pens, ink pot, and a sponge to correct errors
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting the Academy of Plato
2nd-century statuette of Isis–Aphrodite from Lower Egypt (Louvre)
Portrait of a literary woman from Pompeii (ca. 50 AD)
1st–4th-century statuette of Isis lactans (Louvre)
A fresco in Pompeii depicting a poet (thought to be Euphorion) and a female reading a diptych
Isis lactans: the mother goddess suckles Harpocrates (Pio-Clementino Museum)
Statue in Constanța, Romania (the ancient colony Tomis), commemorating Ovid's exile
1st/2nd-century Parian marble statue of Anubis (Gregorian Egyptian Museum)
Brescia Casket, an ivory box with Biblical imagery (late 4th century)
2nd/3rd-century mosaic of Anubis from Ariminum (Museo della Città, Rimini)
Silver cup, from the Boscoreale Treasure (early 1st century AD)
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone grave stela (Luxor Museum)
Finely decorated Gallo-Roman terra sigillata bowl
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone stela (Luxor Museum)
Gold earrings with gemstones, 3rd century
6th- or 7th-century Christian sandstone relief (Luxor Museum)
Glass cage cup from the Rhineland, 4th century
Hadrian coin celebrating Aegyptus Province, struck c. 135. In the obverse, Egypt is personified as a reclining woman holding the sistrum of Hathor. Her left elbow rests on a basket of grain, while an ibis stands on the column at her feet.
Dionysus (Bacchus) with long torch sitting on a throne, with Helios (Sol), Aphrodite (Venus) and other gods. Fresco from Pompeii.
Zenobia coin reporting her title as queen of Egypt (Augusta), and showing her diademed and draped bust on a crescent. The obverse shows a standing figure of Ivno Regina (Juno) holding a patera in her right hand and a sceptre in her left hand, with a peacock at her feet and a brilliant star on the left.
A Roman priest, his head ritually covered with a fold of his toga, extends a patera in a gesture of libation (2nd–3rd century)
Statuettes representing Roman and Gallic deities, for personal devotion at private shrines
thumb|upright=0.6|The Pompeii Lakshmi, an ivory statuette from the Indian subcontinent found in the ruins of Pompeii
Relief from the Arch of Titus in Rome depicting a menorah and other spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem carried in Roman triumph.
This funerary stele from the 3rd century is among the earliest Christian inscriptions, written in both Greek and Latin: the abbreviation D.M. at the top refers to the Di Manes, the traditional Roman spirits of the dead, but accompanies Christian fish symbolism.
The Pantheon in Rome, a Roman temple originally built under Augustus and later rebuilt under Hadrian in the 2nd century, dedicated to Rome's polytheistic religion before its conversion into a Catholic church in the 7th century

Egypt (Aegyptus ; Aígyptos ) was a subdivision of the Roman Empire from Rome's annexation of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in 30 BC to its loss by the Byzantine Empire to the Islamic conquests in AD 641.

- Roman Egypt

Civil wars and proscriptions continued, eventually culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The following year, Octavian conquered the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power then became unassailable, and in 27 BC, the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title of Augustus, effectively making him the first Roman emperor.

- Roman Empire

23 related topics with Alpha


Bust of Vespasian, Vatican Museums, Vatican City

Flavian dynasty

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Bust of Vespasian, Vatican Museums, Vatican City
Flavian family tree, indicating the descendants of Titus Flavius Petro and Tertulla.
The Roman Empire during the Year of the Four Emperors (69 CE). Blue areas indicate provinces loyal to Vespasian and Gaius Licinius Mucianus. Green areas indicate provinces loyal to Vitellius.
Emperor Vitellius (Louvre)
Set of three aurei depicting the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Top to bottom: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.
This relief from the Arch of Titus depicts Roman soldiers carrying treasures from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah. The city was besieged and destroyed by Titus in 70.
Limes Germanicus in 70
The most enduring landmark of the Flavian dynasty was the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum (in Italian Colosseo). Its construction was begun by Vespasian, and ultimately finished by Titus and Domitian.

The Flavian dynasty ruled the Roman Empire between AD 69 and 96, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96).

His position in Judaea further granted him the advantage of being nearest to the vital province of Egypt, which controlled the grain supply to Rome.

Composite image of Isis's most distinctive Egyptian iconography, based partly on images from the tomb of Nefertari


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Major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.

Major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.

Composite image of Isis's most distinctive Egyptian iconography, based partly on images from the tomb of Nefertari
Sculpture of a woman, possibly Isis, in a pose of mourning; fifteenth or fourteenth century BCE
Isis nursing Horus, a sculpture from the 7th century BCE.
Isis holds the king, Seti I, in her lap, thirteenth century BCE
Philae as seen from Bigeh Island, painted by David Roberts in 1838
Isis, left, and Nephthys as kites near the bier of a mummy, thirteenth century BCE
The remains of the temple of Isis on Delos
The Temple of Isis in Pompeii
Cossura bronze coin showing a portrait of Isis with Punic legend
Roman statue of Isis, first or second century CE. She holds a sistrum and a pitcher of water, although these attributes were added in a seventeenth century renovation.
Isis welcoming Io to Egypt, from a fresco at Pompeii, first century CE
Fresco of an Isiac gathering, first century CE. One priest tends a fire while another holds up a vessel of sacred water at the door of a temple flanked by sphinxes.
Isis Lactans holding Harpocrates in an Egyptian fresco from the fourth century CE
Isis as a veiled "goddess of life" at the Herbert Hoover National Historic Site
alt=Relief of a woman in Egyptian clothing with an elaborate headdress|Isis with a combination of throne-glyph and cow horns, as well as a vulture headdress, Temple of Kalabsha, first century BCE or first century CE
alt=Relief of a woman kneeling on a stool and spreading her arms, to which wings are attached|Winged Isis at the foot of the sarcophagus of Ramesses III, twelfth century BCE
alt=Fresco of a mummy lying on a bier. Women stand at the head and foot of the bier, while a winged woman kneels in the register above|Isis, left, and Nephthys stand by as Anubis embalms the deceased, thirteenth century BCE. A winged Isis appears at top.
alt=Statue of a snake with the upper torso and head of a woman|Figurine of Isis-Thermuthis, second century CE
alt=Statue of a woman with a very tall headdress lifting her dress up to the hips|Figurine possibly of Isis-Aphrodite, second or first century BCE
alt=A red stone amulet shaped like a column with a looped top and two loops hanging at the sides|A tyet amulet, fifteenth or fourteenth century BCE
alt=Bust of a woman set in a niche|Bust of Isis-Sothis-Demeter from Hadrian's Villa, second century CE
alt=Life-size statue of a woman|Statue of Isis-Persephone with corkscrew locks of hair and a sistrum, from Gortyna, second century CE
Isis-Aphrodite, polychrome terracotta, Alexandria, first century CE
alt=Metal figurine of a woman|Bronze figurine of Isis-Fortuna with a cornucopia and a rudder, first century CE
alt=Fresco of a woman standing with her foot on a blue sphere|Fresco of Isis wearing a crescent headdress and resting her foot on a celestial sphere, first century CE
Anubis, Harpocrates, Isis and Serapis, fresco from Pompeii

Her devotees were a small proportion of the Roman Empire's population but were found all across its territory.

Various Ptolemaic funerary texts emphasize that Isis took the active role in Horus's conception by sexually stimulating her inert husband, some tomb decoration from the Roman period in Egypt depicts Isis in a central role in the afterlife, and a funerary text from that era suggests that women were thought able to join the retinue of Isis and Nephthys in the afterlife.

Roman governor

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A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.

Much like the senatorial province of Africa, the equestrian province of Aegyptus (Egypt) was an exception to the general rule of legions only being stationed in imperial provinces.

The Roman Empire c. 125 AD, with the province of Arabia Petraea highlighted.

Arabia Petraea

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The Roman Empire c. 125 AD, with the province of Arabia Petraea highlighted.
The Roman Empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled AD 117–138), showing, in western Asia, the imperial province of Arabia Petraea (Jordan/NW Saudi Arabia/Sinai). A single legion was deployed there in 125 AD.
Petra, one of the major cities of Arabian Petra, now designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
A map showing Trajan control of Arabia until Hegra (actual Mada'in Salih).
Bostra, an important centre of trade

Arabia Petraea or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province (Provincia Arabia; العربية البترائية; ) or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the 2nd century.

It was bordered on the north by Syria, on the west by Iudaea (merged with Syria from AD 135) and Aegyptus, and on the south and east by the rest of Arabia, known as Arabia Deserta and Arabia Felix.

Bust 180


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Roman emperor who ruled from 176 to 192.

Roman emperor who ruled from 176 to 192.

Bust 180
Commodus as a child
A denarius featuring Commodus. Inscription: TR. P. VIII, IMP. VI, COS. IIII, P. P. – S. C.
Commodus with attributes of Helios, Apollo and Jupiter, late 2nd century AD, sardonyx cameo relief, Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.
Remnants of a Roman bust of a youth with a blond beard, perhaps depicting emperor Commodus, National Archaeological Museum, Athens
A denarius of Commodus. Inscription: L. L. COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG.
Damnatio memoriae of Commodus on an inscription in the Museum of Roman History in Osterburken, Germany. The abbreviation "CO" has been restored with paint.
Denarius of Commodus. Inscription: ΑΥΤ. ΚΑΙC. KOMMOΔΟC CEB. / ΓEP. CAP. ΔHMαρχικής EΞουσίας Δ΄, YΠATος B΄ (Greek inscription for GER. SAR. Municipal Authority IV, Consul II).
Commodus as Hercules (Capitoline Museum)
The Emperor Commodus Leaving the Arena at the Head of the Gladiators (detail) by Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848–1936), Hermitage Museum and Gardens, Norfolk, Virginia.

His reign is commonly thought of as marking the end of a golden period of peace in the history of the Roman Empire, known as the Pax Romana.

Having been accepted as emperor by Syria, Judea and Egypt, Cassius carried on his rebellion even after it had become obvious that Marcus was still alive.

Neronian coin with the reverse depicting Annona, the personification of the grain supply, and Ceres, whose temple was the site of the dole

Cura Annonae

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The term used in ancient Rome, in honour of their goddess Annona, to describe the import and distribution of grain to the residents of the cities of Rome and, after its foundation, Constantinople.

The term used in ancient Rome, in honour of their goddess Annona, to describe the import and distribution of grain to the residents of the cities of Rome and, after its foundation, Constantinople.

Neronian coin with the reverse depicting Annona, the personification of the grain supply, and Ceres, whose temple was the site of the dole
A bread stall, from a Pompeiian wall painting
Roman trade routes, 180
A model of a small Roman grain ship. Large ones had three masts.
Alexandria, Egypt and its port, 30 BC
An idealized plan of Portus, constructed about 113 AD to serve the city of Rome.
The sixteen overshot wheels at Barbegal are considered the biggest ancient mill complex. Their capacity was sufficient to feed the whole nearby city of Arles
The columns of the statio annonae are now part of the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome. Another statio was found near the Crypta Balbi.

The most important sources of bread grain, mostly durum wheat, were Roman Egypt, North Africa (21st century Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco), and Sicily.

The city of Rome grew rapidly in the centuries of the Roman Republic and Empire, reaching a population approaching 1,000,000 in the 2nd century AD. In the early centuries of the Republic (509–287 BC), the Roman government intervened sporadically to distribute free or subsidized grain to Rome's more impoverished male citizens.

Solidus depicting Theodosius, with the legend:

("Our Lord Theodosius, pious, fortunate, august")

Theodosius I

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Roman emperor from 379 to 395.

Roman emperor from 379 to 395.

Solidus depicting Theodosius, with the legend:

("Our Lord Theodosius, pious, fortunate, august")
Theodosius was commander of the army in Moesia I in 374. His dismissal may have been connected to the accession of the emperor Valentinian II, which took place at Aquincum (Budapest) in nearby Pannonia Valeria, in 375.
The administrative divisions of the Roman Empire in 395, under Theodosius I.
Solidus of Valentinian II showing Valentinian II and Theodosius I on the reverse, each holding a mappa
Head found near statue base dedicated to Theodosius, in the ancient city of Aphrodisias (Aydın, Turkey)
Roman provinces along the Ister (Danube), showing the Roman dioceses of Thrace, Dacia, Pannonia and Italia Annonaria on the empire's northern frontier
Solidus of Theodosius, showing both him and his co-emperor Valentinian II ((r. 375 – 392)) enthroned on the reverse, each crowned by Victory and together holding an orb ("the Victory of the Augusti")
Massacre in the Hippodrome of Thessaloniki in 390, 16th-century wood engraving
Anthonis Van Dyke's 1619 painting of St. Ambrose blocking the cathedral door, refusing Theodosius' admittance, a "pious fiction" invented by Theodoret.
Missorium of Theodosius, found in 1847 in Almendralejo, Spain
View of the Hippodrome of Constantinople with the surviving Obelisk of Theodosius
The Obelisk of Theodosius, details of the base of the Obelisk of Thutmose III, Hippodrome, Istanbul (8370192180)
Theodosius offers a laurel wreath to the victor, on the marble base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III at the Hippodrome of Constantinople.

Theodosius was the last emperor to rule the entire Roman Empire before its administration was permanently split between two separate courts (one western, the other eastern).

Some of these foreign recruits were exchanged with more reliable Roman garrison troops stationed in Egypt.


Year of the Four Emperors

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The Roman Empire in 68–69

The Year of the Four Emperors, AD 69, was the first civil war of the Roman Empire, during which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.

In Rome, Nero was unable to organise resistance to Galba's claim and was even thinking about fleeing to Egypt.

Judaea (Roman province)

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Roman province which incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

Roman province which incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.

Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, by Jean Fouquet
Old Roman era gate, Bab al-'Amud in Jerusalem's Old City (today part of Damascus Gate)
Roman stepped road in the Shephelah hill country of Judea (adjacent to Highway 375)

Its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, but it controlled the land and coastal sea routes to the "bread basket" of Egypt and was a buffer against the Parthian Empire.

Judea in the early Roman period was divided into five administrative districts with centers in Jerusalem, Gadara, Amathus, Jericho, and Sepphoris.

Marble bust, Musée Saint-Raymond, Toulouse, France

Marcus Aurelius

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Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher.

Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher.

Marble bust, Musée Saint-Raymond, Toulouse, France
A bust of young Marcus Aurelius (Capitoline Museum). Anthony Birley, his modern biographer, writes of the bust: 'This is certainly a grave young man.'
Coin (AD 136–138) of Hadrian (obverse) and his adoptive son, Lucius Aelius (reverse). Hadrian is wearing the laurel crown. Inscription: HADRIANVS ... / LVCIVS CAESAR.
Sestertius of Antoninus Pius (AD 140–144). It celebrates the betrothal of Marcus Aurelus and Faustina the Younger in 139, pictured below Antoninus, who is holding a statuette of Concordia and clasping hands with Faustina the Elder. Inscription: ANTONINVS AVG. PIVS P. P., TR. P., CO[N]S. III / CONCORDIAE S.C.
Denarius of Antoninus Pius (AD 139), with a portrait of Marcus Aurelius on the reverse. Inscription: ANTONINVS AVG. PIVS P. P. / AVRELIVS CAES. AVG. PII F. CO[N]S. DES.
The Mausoleum of Hadrian, where the children of Marcus and Faustina were buried
Bust of Antoninus Pius, British Museum
Busts of the co-emperors Marcus Aurelius (left) and Lucius Verus (right), British Museum
Coin of Vologases IV of Parthia. Inscription: above ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΔΟΥ, right ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΒΟΛΑΓΑΣΟΥ, left ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ, below ΔΙΟΥ (Greek inscription for KING OF KINGS – ARSAKIS VOLAGASES – ILLUSTRIUS PHILELLENE). Year ΔΟΥ = ΥΟΔ΄ = 474 = 162–63.
Aureus of Marcus Aurelius (AD 166). On the reverse, Victoria is holding a shield inscribed 'VIC(toria) PAR(thica)', referring to his victory against the Parthians. Inscription: M. ANTONINVS AVG. / TR. P. XX, IMP. IIII, CO[N]S. III.
Marble statue of Lucilla, AD 150–200, Bardo National Museum, Tunisia
Bronze medallion of Marcus Aurelius (AD 168). The reverse depicts Jupiter, flanked by Marcus and Lucius Verus. Inscription: M. ANTONINVS AVG. ARM. PARTH. MAX. / TR. P. XXII, IMP. IIII, COS III.
Aureus of Marcus Aurelius (AD 176–177). The pile of trophies on the reverse celebrates the end of the Marcomannic Wars. Inscription: M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM. / TR. P. XXXI, IMP. VIII, CO[N]S. III, P. P.
Last Words of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (1844) by Eugène Delacroix
The Roman Empire at the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180, represented in purple. His annexation of lands of the Marcomanni and the Jazyges – perhaps to be provincially called Marcomannia and Sarmatia – was cut short in 175 by the revolt of Avidius Cassius and by his death. The light pink territory represents Roman dependencies: Armenia, Colchis, Iberia, and Albania.
First page of the 1811 English translation by Richard Graves
Aureus of Marcus Aurelius (AD December 173 – June 174), with his equestrian statue on the reverse. inscription: M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVIII / IMP. VI, CO[N]S III.
The original Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, 2nd century AD, now located in the Palazzo dei Conservatori
A portrait of Marcus Aurelius, which captures the pensive temperament of the philosopher-emperor

He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors (a term coined some 13 centuries later by Niccolò Machiavelli), and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Roman Empire lasting from 27 BC to 180 AD. He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161.

Lucius Volusius Maecianus, Marcus's former tutor, had been prefectural governor of Egypt at Marcus's accession.