Roman Empire

The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
The Augustus of Prima Porta
(early 1st century AD)
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
The Barbarian Invasions consisted of the movement of (mainly) ancient Germanic peoples into Roman territory. Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the 4th century and lasted for many centuries, during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne. Historically, this event marked the transition between classical antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The Roman Empire by 476
The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period. Data source: Hanson, J. W. (2016), Cities database, (OXREP databases). Version 1.0. (link).
A segment of the ruins of Hadrian's Wall in northern England, overlooking Crag Lough
A 5th-century papyrus showing a parallel Latin-Greek text of a speech by Cicero
Bilingual Latin-Punic inscription at the theatre in Leptis Magna, Roman Africa (present-day Libya)
A multigenerational banquet depicted on a wall painting from Pompeii (1st century AD)
Citizen of Roman Egypt (Fayum mummy portrait)
Dressing of a priestess or bride, Roman fresco from Herculaneum, Italy (30–40 AD)
Slave holding writing tablets for his master (relief from a 4th-century sarcophagus)
Cinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughter
Fragment of a sarcophagus depicting Gordian III and senators (3rd century)
Condemned man attacked by a leopard in the arena (3rd-century mosaic from Tunisia)
Forum of Gerasa (Jerash in present-day Jordan), with columns marking a covered walkway (stoa) for vendor stalls, and a semicircular space for public speaking
Reconstructed statue of Augustus as Jove, holding scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD).
Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161), wearing a toga (Hermitage Museum)
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138) showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 AD
Relief panel from Trajan's Column in Rome, showing the building of a fort and the reception of a Dacian embassy
The Pula Arena in Croatia is one of the largest and most intact of the remaining Roman amphitheatres.
Personification of the River Nile and his children, from the Temple of Serapis and Isis in Rome (1st century AD)
A green Roman glass cup unearthed from an Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb in Guangxi, southern China; the earliest Roman glassware found in China was discovered in a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou, dated to the early 1st century BC, and ostensibly came via the maritime route through the South China Sea
Solidus issued under Constantine II, and on the reverse Victoria, one of the last deities to appear on Roman coins, gradually transforming into an angel under Christian rule
Landscape resulting from the ruina montium mining technique at Las Médulas, Spain, one of the most important gold mines in the Roman Empire
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map") an Itinerarium, often assumed to be based on the Roman cursus publicus, the network of state-maintained roads.
A map of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greco-Roman Periplus
Workers at a cloth-processing shop, in a painting from the fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii
Roman hunters during the preparations, set-up of traps, and in-action hunting near Tarraco
Amphitheatres of the Roman Empire
Construction on the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum (Italy), began during the reign of Vespasian.
The Pont du Gard aqueduct, which crosses the river Gardon in southern France, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
Cityscape from the Villa Boscoreale (60s AD)
Aquae Sulis in Bath, England: architectural features above the level of the pillar bases are a later reconstruction.
Public toilets (latrinae) from Ostia Antica
Reconstructed peristyle garden based on the House of the Vettii
Birds and fountain within a garden setting, with oscilla (hanging masks) above, in a painting from Pompeii
Bread stall, from a Pompeiian wall painting
An Ostian taberna for eating and drinking; the faded painting over the counter pictured eggs, olives, fruit and radishes.
Still life on a 2nd-century Roman mosaic
Wall painting depicting a sports riot at the amphitheatre of Pompeii, which led to the banning of gladiator combat in the town
A victor in his four-horse chariot
The Zliten mosaic, from a dining room in present-day Libya, depicts a series of arena scenes: from top, musicians playing a Roman tuba, a water pipe organ and two horns; six pairs of gladiators with two referees; four beast fighters; and three convicts condemned to the beasts
Boys and girls playing ball games (2nd-century relief from the Louvre)
So-called "bikini girls" mosaic from the Villa del Casale, Roman Sicily, 4th century
Stone game board from Aphrodisias: boards could also be made of wood, with deluxe versions in costly materials such as ivory; game pieces or counters were bone, glass, or polished stone, and might be coloured or have markings or images
Women from the wall painting at the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii
Claudius wearing an early Imperial toga (see a later, more structured toga above), and the pallium as worn by a priest of Serapis, sometimes identified as the emperor Julian
The Aldobrandini Wedding, 27 BC – 14 AD
The Wedding of Zephyrus and Chloris (54–68 AD, Pompeian Fourth Style) within painted architectural panels from the Casa del Naviglio
The bronze Drunken Satyr, excavated at Herculaneum and exhibited in the 18th century, inspired an interest among later sculptors in similar "carefree" subjects.
On the Ludovisi sarcophagus, an example of the battle scenes favoured during the Crisis of the Third Century, the "writhing and highly emotive" Romans and Goths fill the surface in a packed, anti-classical composition
The Primavera of Stabiae, perhaps the goddess Flora
The Triumph of Neptune floor mosaic from Africa Proconsularis (present-day Tunisia), celebrating agricultural success with allegories of the Seasons, vegetation, workers and animals viewable from multiple perspectives in the room (latter 2nd century)
Actor dressed as a king and two muses. Fresco from Herculaneum, 30–40 AD
All-male theatrical troupe preparing for a masked performance, on a mosaic from the House of the Tragic Poet
Pride in literacy was displayed in portraiture through emblems of reading and writing, as in this example of a couple from Pompeii (Portrait of Paquius Proculo).
Reconstruction of a writing tablet: the stylus was used to inscribe letters into the wax surface for drafts, casual letterwriting, and schoolwork, while texts meant to be permanent were copied onto papyrus.
A teacher with two students, as a third arrives with his loculus, a writing case that would contain pens, ink pot, and a sponge to correct errors
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting the Academy of Plato
Portrait of a literary woman from Pompeii (ca. 50 AD)
A fresco in Pompeii depicting a poet (thought to be Euphorion) and a female reading a diptych
Statue in Constanța, Romania (the ancient colony Tomis), commemorating Ovid's exile
Brescia Casket, an ivory box with Biblical imagery (late 4th century)
Silver cup, from the Boscoreale Treasure (early 1st century AD)
Finely decorated Gallo-Roman terra sigillata bowl
Gold earrings with gemstones, 3rd century
Glass cage cup from the Rhineland, 4th century
Dionysus (Bacchus) with long torch sitting on a throne, with Helios (Sol), Aphrodite (Venus) and other gods. Fresco from Pompeii.
A Roman priest, his head ritually covered with a fold of his toga, extends a patera in a gesture of libation (2nd–3rd century)
Statuettes representing Roman and Gallic deities, for personal devotion at private shrines
thumb|upright=0.6|The Pompeii Lakshmi, an ivory statuette from the Indian subcontinent found in the ruins of Pompeii
Relief from the Arch of Titus in Rome depicting a menorah and other spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem carried in Roman triumph.
This funerary stele from the 3rd century is among the earliest Christian inscriptions, written in both Greek and Latin: the abbreviation D.M. at the top refers to the Di Manes, the traditional Roman spirits of the dead, but accompanies Christian fish symbolism.
The Pantheon in Rome, a Roman temple originally built under Augustus and later rebuilt under Hadrian in the 2nd century, dedicated to Rome's polytheistic religion before its conversion into a Catholic church in the 7th century

The post-Republican period of ancient Rome.

- Roman Empire

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Part of the Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna), about 2nd century AD. It shows (left to right) a thraex fighting a murmillo, a hoplomachus standing with another murmillo (who is signaling his defeat to the referee), and one of a matched pair.

Gladiator

Part of the Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna), about 2nd century AD. It shows (left to right) a thraex fighting a murmillo, a hoplomachus standing with another murmillo (who is signaling his defeat to the referee), and one of a matched pair.
Relief of gladiators from Amphitheatre of Mérida, Spain
A retiarius stabs at a secutor with his trident in this mosaic from the villa at Nennig, Germany, c. 2nd–3rd century AD.
A 5th-century mosaic in the Great Palace of Constantinople depicts two venatores fighting a tiger
A Cestus boxer and a rooster in a Roman mosaic at the National Archaeological Museum, Naples, 1st century AD
Pollice Verso ("With a Turned Thumb"), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
A duel, using whip, cudgel and shields, from the Nennig mosaic (Germany)
Mosaic at the National Archaeological Museum in Madrid showing a retiarius named Kalendio (shown surrendering in the upper section) fighting a secutor named Astyanax. The Ø sign by Kalendio's name implies he was killed after surrendering.
A flask depicting the final phase of the fight between a murmillo (winning) and a thraex
Gladiators after the fight, José Moreno Carbonero (1882)
Mérida amphitheatre, Spain; mural of beast hunt, showing a venator (or bestiarius) and lioness
The Colosseum in Rome, Italy
Arles Amphitheatre, inside view
The Amphitheatre at Pompeii, depicting the riot between the Nucerians and the Pompeians
Late 3rd century gladiator mosaic from a private residence in Kourion, Cyprus. All the participants are named, including the referee
Detail of the Gladiator Mosaic, 4th century AD
Part of the Gladiator Mosaic, displayed at the Galleria Borghese
Graffito of a gladiatorial scene from Pompeii, Naples
Murmillo gladiator helmet with relief depicting scenes from the Trojan War
Detail of Murmillo helmet with scenes from the Trojan War. Herculaneum, 1st century CE
Helmet found in the gladiator barracks in Pompeii
Iron gladiator helmet from Herculaneum
Gladiator helmet found in Pompeii
Helmet from 1st–3rd century
Helmet of a murmillo
Ornate gladiator shin guards from Pompeii
Closeup of Silenus on shin guard
Shin guard depicting the goddess Athena
Shin guard depicting Venus Euploia on a ship shaped like a dolphin
Shin guard with relief of Hercules
Shin guard with relief of Hercules
Bronze spear head found in the gladiator barracks in Pompeii
Heart-shaped spear head found in the gladiator barracks in Pompeii
Gladiator show fight in Trier in 2005.
Nimes, 2005.
Carnuntum, Austria, 2007.
Musicians with trumpet (tuba), water organ (hydraulis), and horns (cornua), from the Nennig gladiator mosaic

A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

Bust, Musée Saint-Raymond, Toulouse

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor.

The second Roman emperor.

Bust, Musée Saint-Raymond, Toulouse
Tiberius and his mother Livia, AD 14–19, from Paestum, National Archaeological Museum of Spain, Madrid
"Probable" portrait bust of Vipsania (recovered from Leptis Magna, near Khoms, Libya
The campaigns of Tiberius, Ahenobarbus, and Saturninus in Germania between 6 BC and 1 BC
In 1 AD Augustus sent his stepson Tiberius to subdue the Germanic tribes on the Rhine frontier. In his campaigns, Tiberius eventually extended the Roman border as far as the Elbe but was forced to cancel plans to conquer the Suevic Marcomanni when revolt broke out in Illyria in 6 AD.
Aureus of Tiberius, c. 27–30 AD. Caption: TI. CAESAR DIVI AVG. F. AVGVSTVS / MAXIM. PONTIF.
A bust of the adopted son of Tiberius, Germanicus, from the Louvre, Paris
Ruins from the Villa Jovis on the island of Capri, where Tiberius spent much of his final years, leaving control of the empire in the hands of the prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus.
A denarius of Tiberius. Caption: TI. CAESAR DIVI AVG. F. AVGVSTVS
The Death of Tiberius by Jean Paul Laurens
Statue of Tiberius from Priverno, made shortly after 37 AD, now in the Museo Chiaramonti of the Vatican Museums
An example of Indo-Roman trade and relations during the period: silver denarius of Tiberius (14–37) found in India and Indian copy of the same, 1st-century coin of Kushan king Kujula Kadphises copying a coin of Augustus.
The tribute penny mentioned in the Bible is commonly believed to be a Roman denarius depicting the emperor Tiberius. Caption: TI. CAESAR DIVI AVG. F. AVGVSTVS / MAXIM. PONTIF.
Remnants of Tiberius' villa at Sperlonga, on the coast midway between Rome and Naples

Prior to this, Tiberius had proved himself an able diplomat, and one of the most successful Roman generals: his conquests of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and (temporarily) parts of Germania laid the foundations for the empire's northern frontier.

Illustration of Suetonius from the Nuremberg Chronicle

Suetonius

Illustration of Suetonius from the Nuremberg Chronicle

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. AD 69 – after AD 122), was a Roman historian who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.

View of the Circus site from the south-east. The tower in the foreground is part of a medieval fortification.

Circus Maximus

Ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue in Rome, Italy.

Ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue in Rome, Italy.

View of the Circus site from the south-east. The tower in the foreground is part of a medieval fortification.
Model of Rome in the 4th century AD, by Paul Bigot. The Circus lies between the Aventine (left) and Palatine (right); the oval structure to the far right is the Colosseum.
View of the Circus site from the north-east in 2019
The Obelisco Flaminio, now in the Piazza del Popolo, was once part of the dividing barrier (spina) at the Circus Maximus
Sestertius depicting Caracalla, and the Circus Maximus, with Augustus' obelisk midway along the central dividing barrier (euripus or spina)
Sestertius of Trajan celebrating the restoration of the Circus Maximus (minted 103 AD).
Groundplan of the Circus Maximus, according to Samuel Ball Platner, 1911. The staggered starting gates are to the left.
Jasper intaglio (2nd century AD) depicting chariot races, with the three-pointed metae at each end of the dividing barrier shown at top (Walters Art Museum)
Ruins overlooking the Circus Maximus, seen from the Aventine (1983)
Italian World Cup 2006 victory celebration at the site of the Circus

In the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills, it was the first and largest stadium in ancient Rome and its later Empire.

Bust of Vespasian, Vatican Museums, Vatican City

Flavian dynasty

Bust of Vespasian, Vatican Museums, Vatican City
Flavian family tree, indicating the descendants of Titus Flavius Petro and Tertulla.
The Roman Empire during the Year of the Four Emperors (69 CE). Blue areas indicate provinces loyal to Vespasian and Gaius Licinius Mucianus. Green areas indicate provinces loyal to Vitellius.
Emperor Vitellius (Louvre)
Set of three aurei depicting the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Top to bottom: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.
This relief from the Arch of Titus depicts Roman soldiers carrying treasures from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah. The city was besieged and destroyed by Titus in 70.
Limes Germanicus in 70
The most enduring landmark of the Flavian dynasty was the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum (in Italian Colosseo). Its construction was begun by Vespasian, and ultimately finished by Titus and Domitian.

The Flavian dynasty ruled the Roman Empire between AD 69 and 96, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96).

Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic

Alexander the Great

King of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

King of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

Alexander riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Alexander III riding Bucephalus on a Roman mosaic
Map of The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC, birthplace of Alexander
Roman medallion depicting Olympias, Alexander's mother
Archaeological Site of Pella, Greece, Alexander's birthplace
Philip II of Macedon, Alexander's father
Battle plan from the Battle of Chaeronea
Pausanius assassinates Philip II, Alexander's father, during his procession into the theatre
The emblema of the Stag Hunt Mosaic, c. 300 BC, from Pella; the figure on the right is possibly Alexander the Great due to the date of the mosaic along with the depicted upsweep of his centrally-parted hair (anastole); the figure on the left wielding a double-edged axe (associated with Hephaistos) is perhaps Hephaestion, one of Alexander's loyal companions.
The Macedonian phalanx at the "Battle of the Carts" against the Thracians in 335 BC
Map of Alexander's empire and his route
Gérard Audran after Charles LeBrun, 'Alexander Entering Babylon,' original print first published 1675, engraving, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC.
Alexander Cuts the Gordian Knot (1767) by Jean-Simon Berthélemy
Name of Alexander the Great in Egyptian hieroglyphs (written from right to left), c. 332 BC, Egypt. Louvre Museum.
Site of the Persian Gate in modern-day Iran; the road was built in the 1990s.
Administrative document from Bactria dated to the seventh year of Alexander's reign (324 BC), bearing the first known use of the "Alexandros" form of his name, Khalili Collection of Aramaic Documents
The Killing of Cleitus, by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
Silver tetradrachm of Alexander the Great found in Byblos (ca 330-300 bc.) (BnF 1998–859; 17,33g; Byblos, Price 3426b)
The Phalanx Attacking the Centre in the Battle of the Hydaspes by André Castaigne (1898–1899)
Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent
Porus surrenders to Alexander
Asia in 323 BC, the Nanda Empire and the Gangaridai of the Indian subcontinent, in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbours
Alexander (left) and Hephaestion (right): Both were connected by a tight friendship
Alexander at the Tomb of Cyrus the Great, by Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes (1796)
A Babylonian astronomical diary (c. 323–322 BC) recording the death of Alexander (British Museum, London)
19th-century depiction of Alexander's funeral procession, based on the description by Diodorus Siculus
Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus
Kingdoms of the Diadochi in 301 BC: the Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark blue), the Seleucid Empire (yellow), Kingdom of Pergamon (orange), and Kingdom of Macedon (green). Also shown are the Roman Republic (light blue), the Carthaginian Republic (purple), and the Kingdom of Epirus (red).
A coin of Alexander the Great struck by Balakros or his successor Menes, both former somatophylakes (bodyguards) of Alexander, when they held the position of satrap of Cilicia in the lifetime of Alexander, circa 333-327 BC. The obverse shows Heracles, ancestor of the Macedonian royal line and the reverse shows a seated Zeus Aëtophoros.
The Battle of the Granicus, 334 BC
The Battle of Issus, 333 BC
Alexander Cameo by Pyrgoteles
Alexander portrayal by Lysippos
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail); late 4th century BC mosaic, Pella Museum
A Roman copy of an original 3rd century BC Greek bust depicting Alexander the Great, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC; the couple are apparently dressed as Ares and Aphrodite.
The Hellenistic world view: world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BC), using information from the campaigns of Alexander and his successors
Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Dedication of Alexander the Great to Athena Polias at Priene, now housed in the British Museum
Alexander's empire was the largest state of its time, covering approximately 5.2 million square km.
The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st to 2nd century AD, Gandhara, northern Pakistan. Tokyo National Museum.
This medallion was produced in Imperial Rome, demonstrating the influence of Alexander's memory. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.
Alexander in a 14th-century Armenian manuscript
Alexander in a 14th-century Byzantine manuscript
Alexander conquering the air. Jean Wauquelin, Les faits et conquêtes d'Alexandre le Grand, 1448–1449
Folio from the Shahnameh showing Alexander praying at the Kaaba, mid-16th century
Detail of a 16th-century Islamic painting depicting Alexander being lowered in a glass submersible

The Hellenistic period developed through the Roman Empire into modern Western culture; the Greek language became the lingua franca of the region and was the predominant language of the Byzantine Empire up until its collapse in the mid-15th century AD. Greek-speaking communities in central Anatolia and in far-eastern Anatolia survived until the Greek genocide of the 1910s and early 1920s as well as the Greek–Turkish population exchange of the mid-1920s.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

The Roman Empire maintained nautical hegemony over the sea for centuries.

Aureus of Emperor Aurelian with inscription IMP. C. L. DOM. AVRELIANVS P. F. AVG.

Aurelian

Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; 9 September 214c.

Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; 9 September 214c.

Aureus of Emperor Aurelian with inscription IMP. C. L. DOM. AVRELIANVS P. F. AVG.
Bust of a Roman Emperor historically thought of as a bust of Claudius II. However, there is a possibility that this bust is actually the bust of Aurelian, considering the dissimilarity between it and confirmed statues of Claudius II, especially those unearthed in the nearby Brescia Temple, and the similarity of the features to depictions of Aurelian on Roman currency.
Ruins of Imperial Palace at Sirmium, today in Sremska Mitrovica
Aurelian was a military commander, and during his reign he tried to keep legions' fidelity; this coin celebrated the CONCORDIA MILITVM, "concord of the soldiers" – in other words, "harmony between the emperor and the military". Legend: IMP. C. AVRELIANVS AVG. / CONCORDIA MILITVM – XXIQ mint
The Porta Asinaria, a gate in the Aurelian Walls
The Roman Empire by 271 A.D before the reconquest of the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire by Aurelian
The route of Aurelian's campaign against Palmyra.
Aurelian, personification of Sol, defeats the Palmyrene Empire, and celebrates ORIENS AVG – oriens Augusti: the rising sun/star of Augustus. Legend: IMP. AVRELIANVS AVG. / ORIENS AVG. – XIR.
A Radiate of Aurelian, obverse. Legend: IMP. AVRELIANVS AVG.
A Radiate of Aurelian, reverse. Legend: ORIENS AVG. – EXXI.

As emperor, he won an unprecedented series of military victories which reunited the Roman Empire after it had nearly disintegrated under the pressure of barbarian invasions and internal revolts.

Flavius Anastasius (consul of the Eastern Roman Empire for AD 517) in consular garb, holding a sceptre and the mappa, a piece of cloth used to signal the start of chariot races at the Hippodrome. Ivory panel from his consular diptych.

Roman consul

A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (c.

A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (c.

Flavius Anastasius (consul of the Eastern Roman Empire for AD 517) in consular garb, holding a sceptre and the mappa, a piece of cloth used to signal the start of chariot races at the Hippodrome. Ivory panel from his consular diptych.
An antoninianus commemorating the third consulate ("COS III") of the emperor Philip (248 AD).

After the establishment of the Empire (27 BC), the consuls became mere symbolic representatives of Rome's republican heritage and held very little power and authority, with the Emperor acting as the supreme authority.

Anatolia

Large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.

Large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.

Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum, c. 20,000 years ago. Anatolia was connected to the European mainland until c. 5600 BCE, when the melting ice sheets caused the sea level in the Mediterranean to rise around 120 m,  triggering the formation of the Turkish Straits.   As a result, two former lakes (the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea) were connected to the Mediterranean Sea, which separated Anatolia from Europe.
Göbeklitepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC.
The Sphinx Gate at Hattusha
The Sebasteion of Aphrodisias of Caria
Fairy chimneys in Cappadocia.
Aphrodisias was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site List in 2017
Sanctuary of Commagene Kings on Mount Nemrut (1st century BCE)
Byzantine Anatolia and the Byzantine-Arab frontier zone in the mid-9th century
Salty shores of Lake Tuz.
Mediterranean climate is dominant in Turkish Riviera
Ankara (central Anatolia)
Antalya (southern Anatolia)
Van (eastern Anatolia)

The ancient Anatolian peoples spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages of the Indo-European language family, which were largely replaced by the Greek language during classical antiquity as well as during the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine periods.