Roman cement

opus caementitiumRoman" cement
Roman cement is a substance developed by James Parker in the 1780s, being patented in 1796.wikipedia
50 Related Articles

James Parker (cement maker)

James ParkerParkerParker's Cement
Roman cement is a substance developed by James Parker in the 1780s, being patented in 1796.
His second patent in 1796 "A certain Cement or Terras to be used in Aquatic and other Buildings and Stucco Work", covers Roman cement, a term used in a 1798 pamphlet advertising his cement.

Cement

hydraulic cementcement plantcement factory
The name is misleading as it is nothing like any material used by the Romans, but was a "natural cement" made by burning septaria – nodules that are found in certain clay deposits, and that contain both clay minerals and calcium carbonate.
Most famous was Parker's "Roman cement".

Northfleet

Northfleet, KentPainters AshNorthfleet Urban District
He set up his manufacturing plant on Northfleetcreek, Kent.
When in 1796, James Parker set up kilns on Northfleet creek to make his Roman cement, it was the beginning of a large complex of cement works along this stretch of the river.

James Frost (cement maker)

James Frost
Amongst these were James Frost who had about twenty patents from 1811 to 1822 including one for "British Cement" and in 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British bricklayer from Leeds, with his now famous patent for a method of making a cement he called "Portland cement".
He set up a plant making Roman cement at Harwich in 1807, supplying it for government work.

Portland cement

cementPortland cement concretePortland
This cement is not, however, the same as the modern ordinary Portland cement, which can be defined as artificial cement.
In the late 18th century, Roman cement was developed and patented in 1796 by James Parker.

Joseph Aspdin

Amongst these were James Frost who had about twenty patents from 1811 to 1822 including one for "British Cement" and in 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British bricklayer from Leeds, with his now famous patent for a method of making a cement he called "Portland cement".
The product belongs to the category of "artificial cements" that were developed to compete with Parker's Roman cement, and was similar to that developed much earlier by James Frost.

Concretion

concretionsseptariaseptarian concretions
The name is misleading as it is nothing like any material used by the Romans, but was a "natural cement" made by burning septaria – nodules that are found in certain clay deposits, and that contain both clay minerals and calcium carbonate.

Clay minerals

smectiteclay mineralclay
The name is misleading as it is nothing like any material used by the Romans, but was a "natural cement" made by burning septaria – nodules that are found in certain clay deposits, and that contain both clay minerals and calcium carbonate.

Calcium carbonate

CaCO 3 calcareouscalcium
The name is misleading as it is nothing like any material used by the Romans, but was a "natural cement" made by burning septaria – nodules that are found in certain clay deposits, and that contain both clay minerals and calcium carbonate.

Mortar (masonry)

mortarmortaredmortars
This product, made into a mortar with sand, set in 5–15 minutes.

Chalk

chalk pitchalk rockblack chalk
The success of Roman cement led other manufacturers to develop rival products by burning artificial mixtures of clay and chalk.

Marl

marlstonemarlsMergel
Roman cement was originally the name given, by Parker, to the cement he patented which is a Natural cement (i.e. it is a marl, or limestone containing integral clay, dug out of the ground, burnt and ground to a fine powder).

Patent

patentspatent lawpatented
In 1791, Parker was granted a patent "Method of Burning bricks, Tiles, Chalk".

Kent

Kent, EnglandCounty of KentCounty Kent
He set up his manufacturing plant on Northfleetcreek, Kent.

Bricklayer

masonbrick masonmasons
Amongst these were James Frost who had about twenty patents from 1811 to 1822 including one for "British Cement" and in 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British bricklayer from Leeds, with his now famous patent for a method of making a cement he called "Portland cement".

William Aspdin

William
In 1843, Aspdin's son William improved their cement, which was initially called "Patent Portland cement," although he had no patent.

Rotary kiln

rotating kilnrotary furnacerotary furnaces
Artificial cement: Development in the 1860s of rotating horizontal kiln technology brought dramatic changes in properties, arguably resulting in modern cement.

1796 in science

1796
* Rev. James Parker is granted a patent in Britain for Roman cement ("A certain Cement or Terras to be used in Aquatic and other Buildings and Stucco Work").

Cliveden

Cliveden HouseCliefdenCliveden Hotel
The exterior of the house is rendered in Roman cement, with terracotta additions such as balusters, capitals, keystones and finials.

Rawmill

rawmixwashmill
Early hydraulic materials such as hydraulic limes, natural cements and Parker's Roman cement were all based on "natural" raw materials, burned "as-dug".

Binder (material)

binderbindersbinding agent
Based on their chemical resistance, binders are classified by the field of use: non-hydraulic (gypsum, air-cements, magnesia, hydrated lime), hydraulic (Roman cement, portland cement, hydraulic lime), acid-resistant (silicon fluoride cement, quartz cement), and autoclavable (harden at 170 to 300°С i.e. 8-16 atm pressure and, e.g., comprise CaSiO3 materials).

John Wilson (English architect)

John Wilson
He worked mostly in stucco (which he called 'Roman cement') in the neoclassical, Gothic Revival or Jacobethan styles.

Plasterwork

plasteringplasteredplaster
In 1796, Revd James Parker patented Parker's "Roman Cement".

Isaac Charles Johnson

I C JohnsonI. C. JohnsonI. C. Johnson & Co.
Born in London, his father was a charge-hand at Francis & White's "Roman Cement" plant in Nine Elms.

Dromore Castle (County Kerry)

Dromore CastleDromore
The house is in the castellated Gothic Revival style, with an external finish of Roman Cement with limestone dressings.