Roman censor

censorcensorscensorshipcensusRoman censuscensitorAncient Romecensorescensorialcensors’
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.wikipedia
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Patrician (ancient Rome)

patricianpatrikiospatricians
This was a move by the plebeians to try to attain higher magistracies: only patricians could be elected consuls, while some military tribunes were plebeians.
At the beginning of the Republic, patricians were better represented in the Roman assemblies, only patricians could hold high political offices, such as dictator, consul, censor, and all priesthoods (such as Pontifex Maximus) were closed to non-patricians.

Centuriate Assembly

comitia centuriatapeoplecenturiae
The censors were elected in the Centuriate Assembly, which met under the presidency of a consul.
Only the Centuriate Assembly could declare war or elect the highest-ranking Roman magistrates: consuls, praetors and censors.

Gaius Marcius Rutilus

C. Marcius Rutilus
The magistracy continued to be controlled by patricians until 351 BC, when Gaius Marcius Rutilus was appointed the first plebeian censor.
Gaius Marcius Rutilus (also seen as "Rutulus") was the first plebeian dictator and censor of ancient Rome, and was consul four times.

Marcii Censorini

Marcius CensorinusCensoriniCensorinus
In consequence of this, he received the cognomen of Censorinus.
The cognomen Censorinus was acquired through Gaius Marcius Rutilus, the first plebeian censor, whose son used it.

Lustrum

lustrationappoint new senatorslusters
However, the Gauls captured Rome in that lustrum (five-year period), and the Romans thereafter regarded such replacement as "an offense against religion".
The lustration was originally a sacrifice for expiation and purification offered by one of the censors in the name of the Roman people at the close of the taking of the census.

Curule seat

curule chairsella curuliscurule
The censors possessed the official stool called a "curule chair" (sella curulis), but some doubt exists with respect to their official dress. Every paterfamilias had to appear in person before the censors, who were seated in their curule chairs, and those names were taken first which were considered to be of good omen, such as Valerius, Salvius, Statorius, etc.
Additionally, the censors and the Flamen of Jupiter (Flamen Dialis) were also allowed to sit on a curule seat, though these positions did not hold imperium.

Augustus

OctavianCaesar AugustusAugustus Caesar
During the civil wars which followed soon afterwards, no censors were elected; it was only after a long interval that they were again appointed, namely in 22 BC, when Augustus caused Lucius Munatius Plancus and Aemilius Lepidus Paullus to fill the office.
By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor.

Servius Tullius

her fatherServianServius
The census was first instituted by Servius Tullius, sixth king of Rome, c. 575–535 BC.
This required his development of the first Roman census, making Servius the first Roman censor.

Lucius Munatius Plancus

Munatius PlancusPlancusL. Munatius Plancus
During the civil wars which followed soon afterwards, no censors were elected; it was only after a long interval that they were again appointed, namely in 22 BC, when Augustus caused Lucius Munatius Plancus and Aemilius Lepidus Paullus to fill the office.
87 BC in Tibur – c. 15 BC in Gaeta) was a Roman senator, consul in 42 BC, and censor in 22 BC with Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus.

Roman consul

consulsuffect consulconsulship
After the abolition of the monarchy and the founding of the Republic in 509 BC, the consuls had responsibility for the census until 443 BC.
Thus, in 443 BC, the responsibility to conduct the census was taken from the consuls and given to the censors.

Domitian

Titus Flavius DomitianusAugustusEmperor Domitian
Domitian assumed the title of "perpetual censor" (censor perpetuus), but this example was not imitated by succeeding emperors.
Religious, military, and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality, and by nominating himself perpetual censor, he sought to control public and private morals.

King of Rome

Kings of RomekingsRoman King
The census was first instituted by Servius Tullius, sixth king of Rome, c. 575–535 BC.
The previous role of the king in choosing new senators and dismissing people from the senate was ceded to the censors, albeit in the late republic, the first of these functions was rather limited as all magistrates down to the rank of quaestor gradually had gained admission to the senate after the office's expiration.

Toga

toga praetextatoga virilistoga picta
A well-known passage of Polybius describes the use of the imagines at funerals; we may conclude that a consul or praetor wore the purple-bordered toga praetexta, one who triumphed the embroidered toga picta, and the censor a purple toga peculiar to him, but other writers speak of their official dress as being the same as that of the other higher magistrates.
A freedman or foreigner might pose as a togate citizen, or a common citizen as an equestrian; such pretenders were sometimes ferreted out in the census.

Marcus Licinius Crassus

CrassusMarcus CrassusLicinius Crassus
If the censorship had been done away with by Sulla, it was at any rate restored in the consulship of Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
In 65 BC, Crassus was elected censor with another conservative, Quintus Lutatius Catulus (Capitolinus), himself son of a consul.

Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (consul 34 BC)

Aemilius Lepidus PaullusLucius Aemilius Lepidus PaullusPaullus Aemilius Lepidus
During the civil wars which followed soon afterwards, no censors were elected; it was only after a long interval that they were again appointed, namely in 22 BC, when Augustus caused Lucius Munatius Plancus and Aemilius Lepidus Paullus to fill the office.
He served as Consul in 34 BC and Censor in 22.

Valerian (emperor)

ValerianEmperor ValerianValerianus
In the reign of Decius, we find the elder Valerian nominated to the censorship, but Valerian was never actually elected censor.
In 251 AD, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate, though he declined to accept the post.

Roman Kingdom

Roman monarchyRegal periodmonarchy
After the abolition of the monarchy and the founding of the Republic in 509 BC, the consuls had responsibility for the census until 443 BC.
Next came the censor, which stripped from the consuls the power to conduct the census.

Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus

Mam. Aemilius MacerinusMam. Aemilius Mamercinus
The censors were originally chosen for a whole lustrum (the period of five years), but as early as ten years after its institution (433 BC) their office was limited to eighteen months by a law of the dictator Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus.
Aemilius Mamercinus instead used his office to propose cutting the term of the censors from five years to eighteen months.

Roman Senate

senatorSenateRoman Senator
Its power was limited by one of the laws of the tribune Publius Clodius Pulcher (58 BC), which prescribed certain regular forms of proceeding before the censors in expelling a person from the Roman Senate, and required that the censors be in agreement to exact this punishment.
Senate membership was controlled by the censors.

Claudius

Emperor ClaudiusClaudianClaudius Caesar
Some of the emperors sometimes took the name of censor when they held a census of the Roman people; this was the case with Claudius, who appointed the elder Lucius Vitellius as his colleague, and with Vespasian, who likewise had a colleague in his son Titus.
In 47 he assumed the office of censor with Lucius Vitellius, which had been allowed to lapse for some time.

Valeria (gens)

gens ValeriaValeriusValerii
Every paterfamilias had to appear in person before the censors, who were seated in their curule chairs, and those names were taken first which were considered to be of good omen, such as Valerius, Salvius, Statorius, etc.

Princeps senatus

chief senatorleader of the SenateList of principes senatus
They also confirmed the princeps senatus, or appointed a new one.
He was chosen by every new pair of censors (that is, every 5 years).

Ab Urbe Condita Libri

Ab Urbe ConditaHistory of RomePeriochae
Despite this, no plebeian censor performed the solemn purification of the people (the "lustrum"; Livy Periochae 13) until 280 BC.
In addition the Pontifex Maximus kept the Annales Maximi (yearly events) on display in his house, the censors kept the Commentarii Censorum, the praetors kept their own records, the Commentarii Pontificum and Libri Augurales were available as well as all the laws on stone or brass; the fasti (list of magistrates) and the Libri Lintei, historical records kept in the temple of Juno Moneta.

Maxima auspicia

auspicia maxima
The assembly for the election of the censors was held under different auspices from those at the election of the consuls and praetors, so the censors were not regarded as their colleagues, although they likewise possessed the maxima auspicia.
The auspicia maxima were reserved primarily for consuls and censors, but these were two different types of auspices.

Decius

Trajan DeciusEmperor DeciusDecian
In the reign of Decius, we find the elder Valerian nominated to the censorship, but Valerian was never actually elected censor.
Either as a concession to the Senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor.