Roman commerce

Roman merchantsRoman commercialbulk commodity trademercatoresnegotiatorestradedirect trading linkimported by the RomansRoman maritime tradeRoman shipping
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.wikipedia
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Roman roads

Roman roadroadroads
The cities were connected by good roads.
They provided efficient means for the overland movement of armies, officials, civilians, inland carriage of official communications, and trade goods.

Trade

tradingmercantileexchange
Romans were businessmen and the longevity of their empire was due to their commercial trade.
Roman commerce allowed its empire to flourish and endure.

Ancient Rome and wine

RomansRomanwine
Some provinces specialized in producing certain types of goods, such as grain in Egypt and North Africa and wine and olive oil in Italy, Hispania, and Greece.
Through trade, military campaigns and settlements, Romans brought with them a taste for wine and the impetus to plant vines.

Parthian Empire

ParthianParthiansArsacid
The Roman Empire traded with the Chinese (via Parthian and other intermediaries) over the Silk Road.
The Parthian Empire was enriched by taxing the Eurasian caravan trade in silk, the most highly priced luxury good imported by the Romans.

Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
The Roman Empire traded with the Chinese (via Parthian and other intermediaries) over the Silk Road.
AD 146–168) in AD 166, yet Rafe de Crespigny asserts that this was most likely a group of Roman merchants.

Silk Road

Silk Routesilk tradesilk
The Roman Empire traded with the Chinese (via Parthian and other intermediaries) over the Silk Road.
Intense trade with the Roman Empire soon followed, confirmed by the Roman craze for Chinese silk (supplied through the Parthians), even though the Romans thought silk was obtained from trees.

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

Periplus Maris ErythraeiPeriplusPeriplus of the Erythrean Sea
Meticulous descriptions of the ports and items of trade around the Indian Ocean can be found in the Greek work Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (see article on Indo-Roman trade).
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (, Períplous tis Erythrás Thalássis), also known by its Latin name as the Periplus Maris Erythraei, is a Greco-Roman periplus written in Koine Greek that describes navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice Troglodytica along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Horn of Africa, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea, including the modern-day Sindh region of Pakistan and southwestern regions of India.

Roman economy

economicEconomygross product
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
The Forum Cuppedinis in ancient Rome was a market which offered general goods.
As a result, there was transport of commodities between Roman regions, but increased with the rise of Roman maritime trade in the 2nd century BC.

Tamils

TamilTamil peopleTamilian
The main trading partners in southern India were the Tamil dynasties of the Pandyas, Cholas and Cheras.
Large quantities of Roman coins and signs of the presence of Roman traders have been discovered at Karur and Arikamedu.

Daqin

Da QinDà-chinDàqín
An event recorded in the Chinese Weilue and Book of Later Han for the year 166 seems directly connected to this activity, since these texts claim that an embassy from "Daqin" (i.e. the Roman Empire) sent by their ruler "An Dun" (Chinese: 安敦; i.e. either Antoninus Pius or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) landed in the southern province of Jiaozhi (i.e. northern Vietnam) and presented tributary gifts to the Chinese ruler Emperor Huan of Han.
Archaeological evidence such as Roman coins points to the presence of Roman commercial activity in Southeast Asia.

Monte Testaccio

hill made of broken ''amphoraeMonte dei cocciMount Testaccio
At Rome itself, Monte Testaccio is a tribute to the scale of this commerce.

Indian Ocean

IndianIndoSouthern Indian Ocean
The trade over the Indian Ocean blossomed in the 1st and 2nd century AD.
During the 1st and 2nd centuries AD intensive trade relations developed between Roman Egypt and the Tamil kingdoms of the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas in Southern India.

Sino-Roman relations

Roman embassiesRoman embassies to ChinaRoman embassy
An event recorded in the Chinese Weilue and Book of Later Han for the year 166 seems directly connected to this activity, since these texts claim that an embassy from "Daqin" (i.e. the Roman Empire) sent by their ruler "An Dun" (Chinese: 安敦; i.e. either Antoninus Pius or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus) landed in the southern province of Jiaozhi (i.e. northern Vietnam) and presented tributary gifts to the Chinese ruler Emperor Huan of Han.
Historians Rafe de Crespigny, Peter Fibiger Bang, and Warwick Ball believe that this was most likely a group of Roman merchants rather than official diplomats sent by Marcus Aurelius.

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius AntoninusMarcusMarc Aurel
138-161) and Marcus Aurelius (r.
According to McLaughlin, the disease caused 'irreparable' damage to the Roman maritime trade in the Indian Ocean as proven by the archaeological record spanning from Egypt to India, as well as significantly decreased Roman commercial activity in Southeast Asia.

Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.

Historiography

historiographicalhistoriographerhistoriographic
Fashions and trends in historiography and in popular culture have tended to neglect the economic basis of the empire in favor of the lingua franca of Latin and the exploits of the Roman legions.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelingua francas
Fashions and trends in historiography and in popular culture have tended to neglect the economic basis of the empire in favor of the lingua franca of Latin and the exploits of the Roman legions.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
Fashions and trends in historiography and in popular culture have tended to neglect the economic basis of the empire in favor of the lingua franca of Latin and the exploits of the Roman legions.

Roman legion

legionslegionRoman legions
Fashions and trends in historiography and in popular culture have tended to neglect the economic basis of the empire in favor of the lingua franca of Latin and the exploits of the Roman legions.

Roman Senate

senatorSenateRoman Senator
Whereas in theory members of the Roman Senate and their sons were restricted when engaging in trade, the members of the Equestrian order were involved in businesses, despite their upper class values that laid the emphasis on military pursuits and leisure activities.

Equites

equestrianequesequestrian order
Whereas in theory members of the Roman Senate and their sons were restricted when engaging in trade, the members of the Equestrian order were involved in businesses, despite their upper class values that laid the emphasis on military pursuits and leisure activities.

Plebs

plebeianplebeiansplebe
Plebeians and freedmen held shop or manned stalls at markets, while vast quantities of slaves did most of the hard work.