Roman conquest of Britain

Roman invasion of BritainRoman conquestRoman invasionconquest of Britaininvasion of BritainconquestinvasionRomansRomanRoman occupation
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).wikipedia
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Aulus Plautius

Aulius PlautiusA. Plautius
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
He began the Roman conquest of Britain in 43, and became the first governor of the new province, serving from 43 to 46.

Claudius

Emperor ClaudiusClaudianClaudius Caesar
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia). In 43, possibly by re-collecting Caligula's troops from 40, Claudius mounted an invasion force to re-instate Verica, an exiled king of the Atrebates.
During his reign the Empire started its successful conquest of Britain.

Roman Britain

RomanBritainBritannia
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola (77–84), who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia.

Classis Britannica

Britannic fleetBritish Fleetfleet
The Roman army embarked upon the newly formed Classis Britannica fleet and sailed across the English Channel by nightfall to begin the invasion of Britain.
A fleet was originally raised for the invasion of Britain under Claudius, with the task of bringing an invasion force of 40,000 men from the Roman army, plus supplies, to Great Britain.

English Channel

Channelthe Channelcross-channel
In terms of naval practices, which were essential for the crossing of the English Channel, the Romans created an entirely new ship, the Mediterranean war galley, which were much thicker in wood and more stable on rough waters.
Successful invasions include the Roman conquest of Britain and the Norman Conquest in 1066, while the concentration of excellent harbours in the Western Channel on Britain's south coast made possible the largest amphibious invasion of all time, the Normandy Landings in 1944.

Great Britain

BritishBritainGBR
Great Britain had already frequently been the target of invasions, planned and actual, by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, and later Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia.

Battle of the Medway

battle of the River MedwayRiver Medwayattack
The Romans forced their way inland through several battles against Celtic tribes, including the Battle of the Medway, the Battle of the Thames, the Battle of Caer Caradoc and the Battle of Mona.
This was an early battle in the Claudian invasion of Britain, led by Aulus Plautius.

Catuvellauni

Catuvellaunian
The Catuvellauni had displaced the Trinovantes as the most powerful kingdom in south-eastern Britain, taking over the former Trinovantian capital of Camulodunum (Colchester), and were pressing their neighbours the Atrebates, ruled by the descendants of Julius Caesar's former ally Commius.
The Catuvellauni were a Celtic tribe or state of southeastern Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century.

Roman client kingdoms in Britain

client kingclient kingdomclient states
Between 55 BC and the 40s AD, the status quo of tribute, hostages, and client states without direct military occupation, begun by Caesar's invasions of Britain, largely remained intact.
The system further developed in the following hundred years, particularly under Augustus's influence, so that by the time of the Roman invasion in 43 AD several Roman client kingdoms had become established in the south of Britain.

Vespasian

Emperor VespasianTitus Flavius VespasianusVespasianus
The II Augusta is known to have been commanded by the future emperor Vespasian.
Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II Augusta during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66.

Colchester

Colchester, EssexColchester, EnglandColchester Town Hall
The Catuvellauni had displaced the Trinovantes as the most powerful kingdom in south-eastern Britain, taking over the former Trinovantian capital of Camulodunum (Colchester), and were pressing their neighbours the Atrebates, ruled by the descendants of Julius Caesar's former ally Commius.
Soon after the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, a Roman legionary fortress was established, the first in Britain.

Auxilia

auxiliariesauxiliaryRoman auxiliaries
The constitution of the invasion force followed that of most Roman legions: There were the usual legions made up of cohorts and centurions, and auxilia making up archers and ranged troops, as well as usage of a small group of cavalry.
A veteran of 25 years' service, he had distinguished himself by service in Britain, where he and the eight Batavi cohorts had played a crucial role in both the Roman invasion in 43 AD and the subsequent subjugation of southern Britain.

Legio IX Hispana

Ninth LegionIX ''HispanaLegio IX ''Hispana
Legio IX Hispana was sent north towards Lincoln (Lindum Colonia) and within four years of the invasion it is likely that an area south of a line from the Humber to the Severn Estuary was under Roman control.
It was stationed in Britain following the Roman invasion in 43 AD.

Trinovantes

TrinobantesIron AgeNew Troy
The Catuvellauni had displaced the Trinovantes as the most powerful kingdom in south-eastern Britain, taking over the former Trinovantian capital of Camulodunum (Colchester), and were pressing their neighbours the Atrebates, ruled by the descendants of Julius Caesar's former ally Commius.
Shortly before Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain in 55 and 54 BC, the Trinovantes were considered the most powerful tribe in Britain.

Chichester

Chichester, West SussexChichester, EnglandChichester, Sussex
Some historians suggest a sailing from Boulogne to the Solent, landing in the vicinity of Noviomagus (Chichester) or Southampton, in territory formerly ruled by Verica.
The area around Chichester is believed to have played significant part during the Roman invasion of AD 43, as confirmed by evidence of military storage structures in the area of the nearby Fishbourne Roman Palace.

Tincomarus

Tincommius
According to Augustus's Res Gestae, two British kings, Dubnovellaunus and Tincomarus, fled to Rome as supplicants during his reign, and Strabo's Geography, written during this period, says Britain paid more in customs and duties than could be raised by taxation if the island were conquered.
Tincomarus (a dithematic name form typical of insular and continental Celtic onomastics, analysable as tinco-, perhaps a sort of fish [cf Latin tinca, English tench] + maro-, "big") was a king of the Iron Age Belgic tribe of the Atrebates who lived in southern central Britain shortly before the Roman invasion.

Titus Flavius Sabinus (consul AD 47)

Titus Flavius SabinusTitus Flavius Sabinus IIbrother
Cassius Dio mentions Gnaeus Hosidius Geta, who probably led the IX Hispana, and Vespasian's brother Titus Flavius Sabinus the Younger.
Sabinus is first mentioned in the reign of Claudius, in AD 45, when he served as a legate under Aulus Plautius in Britain, along with his brother, Vespasian.

Verica

In 43, possibly by re-collecting Caligula's troops from 40, Claudius mounted an invasion force to re-instate Verica, an exiled king of the Atrebates.
Verica (early 1st century AD) was a British client king of the Roman Empire in the years preceding the Claudian invasion of 43 AD.

Togodumnus

British resistance was led by Togodumnus and Caratacus, sons of the late king of the Catuvellauni, Cunobeline.
AD 43) was a historical king of the British Catuvellauni tribe at the time of the Roman conquest.

Caratacus

CaractacusCaradocCaradog
British resistance was led by Togodumnus and Caratacus, sons of the late king of the Catuvellauni, Cunobeline.
Caratacus (Brythonic *Caratācos, Middle Welsh Caratawc; Welsh Caradog; Breton Karadeg; Greek Καράτακος; variants Latin Caractacus, Greek Καρτάκης) was a 1st-century AD British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest.

Essex

Essex, EnglandCounty of EssexEssex County
They were pursued by the Romans across the river causing some Roman losses in the marshes of Essex.
The Roman invasion of AD 43 began with a landings on the south coast, probably the Richborough area of Kent.

Richborough Castle

RutupiaeRichboroughRutupiæ
The port of departure is usually taken to have been Boulogne (Bononia), and the main landing at Rutupiae (Richborough, on the east coast of Kent).
Rutupiae or Portus Ritupis was founded by the Romans after their invasion of Britain in 43.

Legio XIV Gemina

XIV GeminaLegio XIV ''Geminafourteenth legion
Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior from AD 9, XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43.

Legio II Augusta

Second LegionII ''AugustaII Augusta
He subdued the Silures and other hostile tribes of Wales, establishing a new base at Caerleon for Legio II Augusta (Isca Augusta) and a network of smaller forts fifteen to twenty kilometres apart for his auxiliary units.
The legion participated in the Roman conquest of Britain in 43.

Rochester, Kent

RochesterRochester, MedwayRochester, England
A substantial British force met the Romans at a river crossing thought to be near Rochester on the River Medway.
During the Roman conquest of Britain a decisive battle was fought at the Medway somewhere near Rochester.