Roman emperor

EmperoremperorsWestern Roman EmperorEmperor of the Roman EmpireRoman EmperorsEmperor of RomeRomanco-EmperorimperialKaiser-i-Rum
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).wikipedia
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Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum, ; ) was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome, consisting of large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, North Africa and West Asia ruled by emperors.

Caesar (title)

CaesarCaesarsKayser-i Rûm
Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar.
The change from being a familial name to a title adopted by the Roman Emperors can be dated to about 68/69 AD, the so-called "Year of the Four Emperors".

Imperator

ImperatrixImperator AugustusRoman imperator
Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific.
Later it became a part of the titulature of the Roman Emperors as part of their cognomen.

Augustus

OctavianCaesar AugustusAugustus Caesar
The first emperor, Augustus, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Modern historians conventionally regard Augustus as the first Emperor whereas Julius Caesar is considered the last dictator of the Roman Republic, a view having its origins in the Roman writers Plutarch, Tacitus and Cassius Dio.
Augustus (Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was a Roman statesman and military leader who became the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

Tiberius

Tiberius CaesarEmperor TiberiusTiberius Claudius Nero
Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successors, Tiberius and Nero, could not convincingly make the same claim.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was the second Roman emperor, reigning from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding Augustus.

Nero

Emperor NeroNero CaesarNero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successors, Tiberius and Nero, could not convincingly make the same claim.
Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

Diocletian

Emperor DiocletianDiocletian ReformsDiocletianus
Nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, efforts were made to portray the emperors as leaders of a republic.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244 – 3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.

Tetrarchy

tetrarchTetrarchstetrarchic
From Diocletian, whose tetrarchic reforms also divided the position into one emperor in the West and one in the East, until the end of the Empire, emperors ruled in an openly monarchic style and did not preserve the nominal principle of a republic, but the contrast with "kings" was maintained: although the imperial succession was generally hereditary, it was only hereditary if there was a suitable candidate acceptable to the army and the bureaucracy, so the principle of automatic inheritance was not adopted.
The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four [people]") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.

Roman consul

consulsuffect consulconsulship
Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably princeps senatus, consul and pontifex maximus.
However, after the establishment of the Empire (27 BC), the consuls became mere symbolic representatives of Rome's republican heritage and held very little power and authority, with the Emperor acting as the supreme authority.

Romulus Augustulus

Romulus AugustusRomulusAugustulus
Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the West after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim recognized by the Eastern Empire to the title until his death in 480.
Flavius Romulus Augustus (c. AD 460 – after AD 476; possibly still alive as late as AD 507), known derisively and historiographically as Romulus Augustulus, was the Roman emperor who ruled the Western Roman Empire from 31 October 475 until 4 September 476.

Julius Nepos

Flavius Julius NeposNepos
Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the West after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim recognized by the Eastern Empire to the title until his death in 480.
undefined AD 430 – 480) was de jure and de facto Western Roman Emperor from AD 474 to 475 and then only de jure until his death in AD 480.

List of Byzantine emperors

Byzantine EmperorEmperorByzantine emperors
The Eastern imperial lineage continued to rule from Constantinople ("New Rome"); they continued to style themselves as Emperor of the Romans (later βασιλεύς Ῥωμαίων in Greek), but are often referred to in modern scholarship as Byzantine emperors. The "Byzantine" emperors from Heraclius in 629 and onwards adopted the title of basileus, which had originally meant king in Greek but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor and the ruler of the Sasanian Empire.
Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later emperors as the model ruler.

Roman army

armyRomanRomans
The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both.
During this period the Republican system of citizen-conscription was replaced by a standing professional army of mainly volunteers serving standard 20-year terms (plus 5 as reservists), although many in the service of the empire would serve as many as 30 to 40 years on active duty, as established by the first Roman emperor, Augustus (sole ruler 30 BC – AD 14).

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
The Eastern imperial lineage continued to rule from Constantinople ("New Rome"); they continued to style themselves as Emperor of the Romans (later βασιλεύς Ῥωμαίων in Greek), but are often referred to in modern scholarship as Byzantine emperors. The peaceful reign of Constantine the Great, the first to openly convert to Christianity and allowing freedom of religion, witnessed the replacement of the Caput Mundi from Rome to Constantinople.
Constantinople was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I (272–337) in 324 on the site of an already-existing city, Byzantium, which was settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion, in around 657 BC, by colonists of the city-state of Megara.

Caput Mundi

The Capital of the WorldCapital of the worldcentre
The peaceful reign of Constantine the Great, the first to openly convert to Christianity and allowing freedom of religion, witnessed the replacement of the Caput Mundi from Rome to Constantinople.
Constantinople, also known as Eastern Rome of the New Rome, was built as the second Caput Mundi by Emperor Constantine in 330 AD, the first Roman Emperor to openly convert to Christianity.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
The "Byzantine" emperors from Heraclius in 629 and onwards adopted the title of basileus, which had originally meant king in Greek but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor and the ruler of the Sasanian Empire.
In 230, Ardashir raided deep into Roman territory, and a Roman counter-offensive two years later ended inconclusively, although the Roman emperor, Alexander Severus, celebrated a triumph in Rome.

Tacitus

Publius Cornelius TacitusCornelius TacitusGaius Cornelius Tacitus
Modern historians conventionally regard Augustus as the first Emperor whereas Julius Caesar is considered the last dictator of the Roman Republic, a view having its origins in the Roman writers Plutarch, Tacitus and Cassius Dio.
The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD).

Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
Modern historians conventionally regard Augustus as the first Emperor whereas Julius Caesar is considered the last dictator of the Roman Republic, a view having its origins in the Roman writers Plutarch, Tacitus and Cassius Dio.
The final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which effectively made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic.

Constantine VI

ConstantineConstantinus Augustus
Eastern emperors in Constantinople had been recognized and accepted as Roman emperors both in the East, which they ruled, and by the Papacy and Germanic kingdoms of the West until the deposition of Constantine VI and accession of Irene of Athens as Empress regnant in 797.
Constantine VI was the final ruler to be universally recognized as Roman Emperor, being recognized as such by both the Empire which he ruled in the east, the papacy and the Western European powers over which the pope held suzerainty.

Josephus

Flavius JosephusJosephus FlaviusTitus Flavius Josephus
However, the majority of Roman writers, including Josephus, Pliny the Younger, Suetonius and Appian, as well as most of the ordinary people of the Empire, thought of Julius Caesar as the first Emperor.
Josephus claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome.

Gratian

GratianusEmperor GratianChristianity became a state religion
Every emperor held the latter office and title until Gratian surrendered it in AD 382 to Pope Siricius; it eventually became an auxiliary honor of the Bishop of Rome.
Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus; ; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 367 to 383.

Mark Antony

Marcus AntoniusMarc AntonyAntony
A decade after Caesar's death, Octavian's victory over his erstwhile ally Mark Antony at Actium put an end to any effective opposition and confirmed Octavian's supremacy.
In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor.

Princeps

princeps iuventutisFirst Citizenprinceps civitatis
Early Emperors also used the title Princeps Civitatis ('first citizen').
Various official titles were associated with the Roman Emperor.

Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperial
Objecting to a woman ruling the Roman Empire in her own right and issues with the eastern clergy, the Papacy would then create a rival lineage of Roman emperors in western Europe, the Holy Roman Emperors, which ruled the Holy Roman Empire for most of the period between 800 and 1806.
306–337), the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity.

Appian

Appian of AlexandriaAppianusAppianus Alexandrinus (Appian)
However, the majority of Roman writers, including Josephus, Pliny the Younger, Suetonius and Appian, as well as most of the ordinary people of the Empire, thought of Julius Caesar as the first Emperor.
95 – c. AD 165) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.