# Roman numerals

Roman numeralRomanRoman numberAdditive Roman numeralsIconventional Roman clock-face numeralsIXMDLXVIIMDXIIIMDXXX
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.wikipedia
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### Statue of Liberty

1776 (M+DCC+LXX+VI) = (the date written on the book held by the Statue of Liberty).
She holds a torch above her head with her right hand, and in her left hand carries a tabula ansata inscribed in Roman numerals with "JULY IV MDCCLXXVI" (July 4, 1776), the date of the U.S. Declaration of Independence.

### Subtractive notation

This feature of Roman numerals is called subtractive notation.
Subtractive notation is an early form of positional notation used with Roman numerals as a shorthand to replace four or five characters in a numeral representing a number with usually just two characters.

### Numeral system

numeralsnumeralbase
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
The ancient Egyptian numeral system was of this type, and the Roman numeral system was a modification of this idea.

### Clock face

dialfacehour hand
Clock faces that use Roman numerals normally show for four o'clock but for nine o'clock, a practice that goes back to very early clocks such as the Wells Cathedral clock of the late 14th century. However, this is far from universal: for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster, Big Ben, uses a "normal".
Clocks can indicate the hour with Roman numerals or Hindu–Arabic numerals, or with non-numeric indicator marks.

### Big Ben

Elizabeth TowerClock Towerclock tower of the Palace of Westminster
Clock faces that use Roman numerals normally show for four o'clock but for nine o'clock, a practice that goes back to very early clocks such as the Wells Cathedral clock of the late 14th century. However, this is far from universal: for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster, Big Ben, uses a "normal".
Unlike most other Roman numeral clock dials, which show the '4' position as 'IIII', the Great Clock faces depict '4' as 'IV'.

### The Last Time I Saw Paris

The Last Time I Saw
1954 (M+CM+L+IV) = (as in the trailer for the movie The Last Time I Saw Paris)
The film was released in 1954; however, there was an error with the Roman numerals in the copyright notice showing "MCMXLIV" (1944), meaning the term of copyright started 10 years before the film was released.

### Super Bowl

Super Bowl ChampionSuper Bowlsthe Super Bowl
The Super Bowl, the annual championship game of the National Football League (e.g. Super Bowl ; Super Bowl 50 is a one-time exception )
Normally, Roman numerals are used to identify each game, rather than the year in which it is held.

### Super Bowl 50

50Super Bowl2016 Super Bowl
The Super Bowl, the annual championship game of the National Football League (e.g. Super Bowl ; Super Bowl 50 is a one-time exception )
As this was the 50th Super Bowl game, the league emphasized the "golden anniversary" with various gold-themed initiatives during the 2015 season, as well as suspending the tradition of naming each Super Bowl game with Roman numerals (under which the game would have been known as "Super Bowl L"), so the logo could prominently feature the Arabic numerals 50.

### Arabic numerals

Arabic numeralArabicnumbers
From the 14th century on, Roman numerals began to be replaced in most contexts by the more convenient Arabic numerals; however, this process was gradual, and the use of Roman numerals persists in some minor applications to this day.
Roman numerals remained in use mostly for the notation of anno Domini years, and for numbers on clockfaces.

### Outline (list)

outlineoutlinesoutlining
Outlines that use numbers to show hierarchical relationships.
The prefix is in the form of Roman numerals for the top level, upper-case letters (in the alphabet of the language being used) for the next level, Arabic numerals for the next level, and then lowercase letters for the next level.

### French Republican calendar

Republican CalendarYear IIrevolutionary calendar
In the French Republican Calendar, initiated during the French Revolution, years were numbered by Roman numerals – from the year I (1792) when this calendar was introduced to the year XIV (1805) when it was abandoned.
Years appear in writing as Roman numerals (usually), with epoch 22 September 1792, the beginning of the "Republican Era" (the day the French First Republic was proclaimed, one day after the Convention abolished the monarchy).

### Oxidation state

oxidation numberoxidation statesoxidation
They are also used in the IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry, for the oxidation number of cations which can take on several different positive charges.
In inorganic nomenclature, the oxidation state is represented by a Roman numeral placed after the element name inside a parenthesis or as a superscript after the element symbol.

### Periodic table

periodic table of elementsperiodic table of the elementsperiodic system
In chemistry, Roman numerals are often used to denote the groups of the periodic table.
Previously, they were known by roman numerals.

### Abacus

abaciabacusescounting frame
Roman numerals, however, proved very persistent, remaining in common use in the West well into the 14th and 15th centuries, even in accounting and other business records (where the actual calculations would have been made using an abacus).
Marked lines indicated units, fives, tens etc. as in the Roman numeral system.

### Tally marks

tally marktallytallying
Every fifth notch was double cut i.e.,,,, etc.), and every tenth was cross cut,, much like European tally marks today.
Roman numerals, the Chinese numerals for one through three, and rod numerals were derived from tally marks, as possibly was the ogham script.

### Roman numeral analysis

Roman numeralsRoman numeralRoman numeral designations
In music theory, the diatonic functions are identified using Roman numerals. (See: Roman numeral analysis)
In music, Roman numeral analysis uses Roman numerals to represent chords.

### IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry

inorganic nomenclatureRed Bookformal rules for naming inorganic compounds
They are also used in the IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry, for the oxidation number of cations which can take on several different positive charges.
3) Cations which have taken on more than one positive charge are labeled with Roman numerals in parentheses. For example, Cu + is copper(I), Cu 2+ is copper(II). An older, deprecated notation is to append -ous or -ic to the root of the Latin name to name ions with a lesser or greater charge. Under this naming convention, Cu + is cuprous and Cu 2+ is cupric. For naming metal complexes see the page on complex (chemistry).

### Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval period
Names of monarchs and popes, e.g. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Pope Benedict XVI. These are referred to as regnal numbers and are usually read as ordinals; e.g. is pronounced "the second". This tradition began in Europe sporadically in the Middle Ages, gaining widespread use in England during the reign of Henry VIII. Previously, the monarch was not known by numeral but by an epithet such as Edward the Confessor. Some monarchs (e.g. Charles IV of Spain and Louis XIV of France) seem to have preferred the use of instead of on their coinage (see illustration).
Among the results of the Greek and Islamic influence on this period in European history was the replacement of Roman numerals with the decimal positional number system and the invention of algebra, which allowed more advanced mathematics.

### Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
Lower case, minuscule, letters were developed in the Middle Ages, well after the demise of the Western Roman Empire, and since that time lower-case versions of Roman numbers have also been commonly used:,,,, and so on.Since the Middle Ages, a "" has sometimes been substituted for the final "" of a "lower-case" Roman numeral, such as "" for 3 or "" for 7.
Roman numerals continue to be used in some fields and situations, though they have largely been replaced by Arabic numerals.

### Greek numerals

GreeknumericGreek numeral
A notable exception to the use of Roman numerals in Europe is in Greece, where Greek numerals (based on the Greek alphabet) are generally used in contexts where Roman numerals would be used elsewhere.
In modern Greece, they are still used for ordinal numbers and in contexts similar to those in which Roman numerals are still used elsewhere in the West.

### Major Arcana

Arcanatrump cardarcane
In tarot, Roman numerals (with zero) are used to denote the cards of the Major Arcana.
In many decks, each has a number (usually in Roman numerals) and a name, though not all decks have both, and some have only a picture.

### Decimal

base 10decimal fractiondecimal system
Though the Romans used a decimal system for whole numbers, reflecting how they counted in Latin, they used a duodecimal system for fractions, because the divisibility of twelve (12 = 2 2 × 3) makes it easier to handle the common fractions of 1/3 and 1/4 than does a system based on ten (10 = 2 × 5). On coins, many of which had values that were duodecimal fractions of the unit as, they used a tally-like notational system based on twelfths and halves.
Examples are Brahmi numerals, Greek numerals, Hebrew numerals, Roman numerals, and Chinese numerals.

### 0

zerozero function0 (number)
Another zero was used in tables alongside Roman numerals by 525 (first known use by Dionysius Exiguus), but as a word, nulla meaning "nothing", not as a symbol.

### Music theory

music theoristtheorymusical theory
In music theory, the diatonic functions are identified using Roman numerals. (See: Roman numeral analysis)
To describe this, chords are numbered, using Roman numerals (upward from the key-note), per their diatonic function.

### Numerals in Unicode

Attic numerals in UnicodeGreek numbersGreek numerals in Unicode
Roman numerals in Unicode
In addition to many forms of the Hindu-Arabic numerals, Unicode also includes several less common numerals such as: Aegean numerals, Roman numerals, counting rod numerals, Cuneiform numerals and ancient Greek numerals.