Roman province

provinceprovincesprovincialExarchate of Illyricumprovincial administrationprovinces of the Roman EmpireEastern provincesprovinciaprovincial systemRoman provinces
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.wikipedia
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Roman consul

consulsuffect consulconsulship
Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, usually former consuls or former praetors. Under the Roman Republic, the magistrates were elected to office for a period of one year, and those serving outside the city of Rome, such as consuls acting as generals on a military campaign, were assigned a particular provincia, the scope of authority within which they exercised their command.
The consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, and a consul's imperium extended over Rome, Italy, and the provinces.

Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
Under the Roman Republic, the magistrates were elected to office for a period of one year, and those serving outside the city of Rome, such as consuls acting as generals on a military campaign, were assigned a particular provincia, the scope of authority within which they exercised their command.
Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.

Sardinia and Corsica

SardiniaCorsica and SardiniaCorsica, Sardinia, Baleares
The first permanent provinces to be annexed were Sicilia in 241 BC and Corsica et Sardinia in 237 BC. Militarized expansionism kept increasing the number of these administrative provinces, until there were no longer enough qualified individuals to fill the posts.
The Province of Sardinia and Corsica (Provincia Sardinia et Corsica, Ancient Greek ἐπαρχία Σαρδηνίας και Κορσικής) was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
Senators became rich at the provinces' expense; soldiers, who were mostly small-scale farmers, were away from home longer and could not maintain their land; and the increased reliance on foreign slaves and the growth of latifundia reduced the availability of paid work.

Imperium

imperium maiuscommandcurule magistracy
The Latin word provincia originally meant any task or set of responsibilities assigned by the Roman Senate to an individual who held imperium (right of command), which was often a military command within a specified theater of operations.
One's imperium could be over a specific military unit, or it could be over a province or territory.

Cisalpine Gaul

CisalpineGallia CisalpinaGallia Transpadana
120 BC – Gallia Narbonensis (southern France); prior to its annexation it was called Gallia Transalpina (Gallia on the other side of the Alps) to distinguish it from Gallia Cisalpina (Gaul on this same side of the Alps, in northern Italy). It was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia (Marseille). Gallia Cisalpina (in northern Italy) was a province in the sense of an area of military command, but was never a province in the sense of an administrative unit.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina, also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata ) was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Conquered by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC, it was a Roman province from c. 81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into Roman Italy.

Sicilia (Roman province)

SicilySiciliaprovince of Sicily
241 BC – Sicilia (Sicily) taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed at the end of the First Punic War
Sicilia was the first province acquired by the Roman Republic.

First Punic War

FirstPunic War First
241 BC – Sicilia (Sicily) taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed at the end of the First Punic War Rome started expanding beyond Italy during the First Punic War.
The Carthaginian fleet was destroyed at the Aegates Islands in 241, forcing the cut-off Carthaginian troops on Sicily to give up. A peace treaty was signed in which Carthage was made to pay a heavy indemnity and Rome ejected Carthage from Sicily, annexing the island as a Roman province.

Prorogatio

proroguedpraerogativaprorogare
The terms of provincial governors often had to be extended for multiple years (prorogatio), and on occasion the senate awarded imperium even to private citizens (privati), most notably Pompey the Great.
By the Late Republic, prorogation of provincial assignments had become the norm; by enabling individuals to accumulate disproportionate military power and wealth, the practice contributed to the breakdown of constitutional checks and balances and to the civil wars that led to the collapse of the Republic.

Italy

🇮🇹ItalianITA
Gallia Cisalpina (in northern Italy) was a province in the sense of an area of military command, but was never a province in the sense of an administrative unit.
The Italian Peninsula was named Italia and, as the territory of the city of Rome and the metropole of the empire, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina (ruler) of the provinces".

Iberian Peninsula

IberiaIberianPeninsula
197 BC – Hispania Citerior; along the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula; part of the territories taken over from the Carthaginians
At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Hispania Lusitania.

Tetrarchy

tetrarchtetrarchicTetrarchs
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
For a listing of the provinces, now known as eparchy, within each quarter (known as a praetorian prefecture), see Roman province.

Bithynia and Pontus

BithyniaPontusBithynia-Pontus
63 BC – Pontus et Bithynia; the Kingdom of Bithynia (in North-western Anatolia - Turkey) was bequeathed to Rome by its last king, Nicomedes IV in 74 BC. It was organised as a Roman province at the end of the Third Mithridatic War (73-63 BC) by Pompey, who incorporated the eastern part of the defeated Kingdom of Pontus into it in 63 BC.
Bithynia and Pontus (Provincia Bithynia et Pontus) was the name of a province of the Roman Empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (Turkey).

Cyrenaica

PentapolisEastern LibyaBarqa
67 BC – Creta et Cyrenae; Cyrenaica was bequeathed to Rome in 78 BC. However, it was not organised as a province. It was incorporated into the province of Creta et Cyrenae when Crete was annexed in 67 BC.
Also known as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity, it formed part of the Roman province of Crete and Cyrenaica, later divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya Sicca.

Gallia Narbonensis

Transalpine GaulGallia TransalpinaTransalpine
120 BC – Gallia Narbonensis (southern France); prior to its annexation it was called Gallia Transalpina (Gallia on the other side of the Alps) to distinguish it from Gallia Cisalpina (Gaul on this same side of the Alps, in northern Italy). It was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia (Marseille).
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.

Bithynia

Kingdom of BithyniaBithynianBithynian Kingdom
63 BC – Pontus et Bithynia; the Kingdom of Bithynia (in North-western Anatolia - Turkey) was bequeathed to Rome by its last king, Nicomedes IV in 74 BC. It was organised as a Roman province at the end of the Third Mithridatic War (73-63 BC) by Pompey, who incorporated the eastern part of the defeated Kingdom of Pontus into it in 63 BC.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenicHellenism
This exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of the kings of the earlier Hellenistic period.
However, Emporion lost its political independence around 195 BC with the establishment of the Roman province of Hispania Citerior and by the 1st century BC had become fully Romanized in culture.

Cilicia (Roman province)

CiliciaAugustaCilicia et Cyprus
58 BC – Cilicia et Cyprus; Cilicia was created as a province in the sense of area of military command in 102 BC in a campaign against piracy. The Romans controlled only a small area. In 74 BC Lycia and Pamphylia (to the east) were added to the small Roman possessions in Cilicia. Cilicia came fully under Roman control towards the end of the Third Mithridatic War - 73-63 BC. The province was reorganised by Pompey in 63 BC. Cyprus was annexed and added to this province in 58 BC.
Cilicia was an early Roman province, located on what is today the southern (Mediterranean) coast of Turkey.

Augustus

OctavianAugustanCaesar Augustus
A later exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus after the death of Cleopatra; it was ruled by a governor of only equestrian rank, perhaps as a discouragement to senatorial ambition.
At the same time, Octavian could not simply give up his authority without risking further civil wars among the Roman generals and, even if he desired no position of authority whatsoever, his position demanded that he look to the well-being of the city of Rome and the Roman provinces.

Hispania

SpainRomanRomans
Octavian himself assumed the title "Augustus" and was given to govern, in addition to Egypt, the strategically important provinces of Gaul, Hispania and Syria (including Cilicia and Cyprus).
Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior.

Procurator (Ancient Rome)

procuratorprocuratorsRoman Procurator
Egypt and some smaller provinces where no legions were based were ruled by a procurator (praefectus in Egypt), whom the emperor selected from non-senators of equestrian rank.
A fiscal procurator (procurator Augusti) was the chief financial officer of a province during the Principate (30 BC – AD 284).

Achaea (Roman province)

AchaeaAchaiaprovince of Achaea
27 BC – Achaia (southern and central Greece), Augustus separated it from Macedonia (senatorial propraetorial province)
Achaea or Achaia (Ἀχαΐα, Akhaia; Achaia), was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, Attica, Boeotia, Euboea, the Cyclades and parts of Phthiotis, Aetolia-Acarnania and Phocis.

Macedonia (Roman province)

MacedoniaRoman province of MacedoniaMacedonian
27 BC – Achaia (southern and central Greece), Augustus separated it from Macedonia (senatorial propraetorial province) 147 BC – Macedonia in mainland Greece. It was annexed after a rebellion by the Achaean League.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.

Roman Italy

ItalyItaliaItalian
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
He decreased the size of the Roman provinces by doubling their number to reduce the power of the provincial governors.

Roman Gaul

GaulGallo-RomanGallic
Octavian himself assumed the title "Augustus" and was given to govern, in addition to Egypt, the strategically important provinces of Gaul, Hispania and Syria (including Cilicia and Cyprus).
In 22 BC, imperial administration of Gaul was reorganized, establishing the provinces of Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Belgica and Gallia Lugdunensis.