Roman triumph

triumphtriumphstriumphaltriumphedtriumphal paradetriumphal processionornamenta triumphaliatriumphatorFasti Triumphalestriumphal honors
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.wikipedia
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Religion in ancient Rome

ancient Roman religionRoman religionRoman
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
The Roman triumph was at its core a religious procession in which the victorious general displayed his piety and his willingness to serve the public good by dedicating a portion of his spoils to the gods, especially Jupiter, who embodied just rule.

Jupiter (mythology)

JupiterJoveJupiter Optimus Maximus
Once at the Capitoline temple, he sacrificed two white oxen to Jupiter and laid tokens of his victory at Jupiter's feet, dedicating his victory to the Roman Senate, people, and gods.
A similar offering was made by triumphal generals, who surrendered the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiter's statue in the Capitol.

Toga

toga praetextatoga virilistoga picta
On the day of his triumph, the general wore a crown of laurel and the all-purple, gold-embroidered triumphal toga picta ("painted" toga), regalia that identified him as near-divine or near-kingly, and even was known to paint his face red.

Invidia

Envy
His sumptuous triumphal chariot was bedecked with charms against the possible envy (invidia) and malice of onlookers.
When a Roman general celebrated a triumph, the Vestal Virgins suspended a fascinus, or phallic effigy, under the chariot to ward off invidia.

Memento mori

momento moriskullskull and crossbones
In some accounts, a companion or public slave would remind him from time to time of his own mortality (a memento mori).
The 2nd-century Christian writer Tertullian claimed that during his triumphal procession, a victorious general would have someone (in later versions, a slave) standing behind him, holding a crown over his head and whispering "Respice post te. Hominem te memento" ("Look after you [to the time after your death] and remember you're [only] a man.").

Circus Maximus

Circo MassimoCircusRome
It continued through the site of the Circus Flaminius, skirting the southern base of the Capitoline Hill and the Velabrum, along a Via Triumphalis (Triumphal Way) towards the Circus Maximus, perhaps dropping off any prisoners destined for execution at the Tullianum.
Others might be given to fulfill a religious vow, such as the games in celebration of a triumph.

Glossary of ancient Roman religion

aedesfanumdivus
For example, March 1, the festival and dies natalis of the war god Mars, was the traditional anniversary of the first triumph by Publicola (504 BCE), of six other Republican triumphs, and of the very first Roman triumph by Romulus.
A public figure might schedule a major event on his birthday: Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great") waited seven months after he returned from his military campaigns in the East before he staged his triumph, so he could celebrate it on his birthday.

Capitoline Hill

CampidoglioCapitolCapitoline
At Jupiter's temple on the Capitoline Hill, he offered sacrifice and the tokens of his victory to the god Jupiter.
When Julius Caesar suffered an accident during his triumph, clearly indicating the wrath of Jupiter for his actions in the Civil Wars, he approached the hill and Jupiter's temple on his knees as a way of averting the unlucky omen (nevertheless he was murdered six months later, and Brutus and his other assassins locked themselves inside the temple afterward).

Imperial cult of ancient Rome

Imperial cultdeifiedRoman imperial cult
In the Imperial era, emperors wore such regalia to signify their elevated rank and office and to identify themselves with the Roman gods and Imperial order – a central feature of Imperial cult.
Among the highest of honors was the triumph.

Fasces

fascio littorioRoman fascesbundle of sticks
Next in line, all on foot, came Rome's senators and magistrates, followed by the general's lictors in their red war-robes, their fasces wreathed in laurel, then the general in his four-horse chariot.
Lictors preceded consuls (and proconsuls), praetors (and propraetors), dictators, curule aediles, quaestors, and the Flamen Dialis during Roman triumphs (public celebrations held in Rome after a military conquest).

Titus

Emperor TitusTitus Flavius Vespasianusthe Emperor
Sculpted panels on the arch of Titus (built by Domitian) celebrate Titus' and Vespasian's joint triumph over the Jews after the siege of Jerusalem, with a triumphal procession of captives and treasures seized from the temple of Jerusalem – some of which funded the building of the Colosseum.
For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph; the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day.

Publius Valerius Publicola

Publius Valerius PoplicolaPoplicolaPublicola
For example, March 1, the festival and dies natalis of the war god Mars, was the traditional anniversary of the first triumph by Publicola (504 BCE), of six other Republican triumphs, and of the very first Roman triumph by Romulus.
Valerius collected the spoils of battle and returned to Rome, where he celebrated a triumph on March 1, 509 BC.

Ludi

gamescircensesludi circenses
Some triumphs included ludi as fulfillment of the general's vow to a god or goddess, made before battle or during its heat, in return for their help in securing victory.
As the product of military victory, ludi were often connected to triumphs.

Fasti Triumphales

The Fasti Triumphales (also called Acta Triumphalia) are stone tablets that were erected in the Forum Romanum around 12 BCE, during the reign of Emperor Augustus.
The Acta Triumphorum or Triumphalia, better known as the Fasti Triumphales, or Triumphal Fasti, is a calendar of Roman magistrates honoured with a celebratory procession known as a triumphus, or triumph, in recognition of an important military victory, from the earliest period down to 19 BC.

Roman Forum

ForumForum Romanumforums
The Fasti Triumphales (also called Acta Triumphalia) are stone tablets that were erected in the Forum Romanum around 12 BCE, during the reign of Emperor Augustus. It entered the Via Sacra then the Forum.
For centuries the Forum was the center of day-to-day life in Rome: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches; and the nucleus of commercial affairs.

Fascinus

fascinumcharmserotic fascination
His sumptuous triumphal chariot was bedecked with charms against the possible envy (invidia) and malice of onlookers.
When a general celebrated a triumph, the Vestals hung an effigy of the fascinus on the underside of his chariot to protect him from invidia.

Augur

augursauguriesCollege of Augurs
One is an aureus (a gold coin) that has a laurel-wreathed border enclosing a head which personifies Africa; beside it, Pompey's title "Magnus" ("The Great"), with wand and jug as symbols of his augury.
During the Republic, priesthoods were prized as greatly as the consulship, the censorship, and the triumph.

Via Sacra

Sacra ViaSacred Waysacred road
It entered the Via Sacra then the Forum.
The road was part of the traditional route of the Roman Triumph that began on the outskirts of the city and proceeded through the Roman Forum.

Marcus Licinius Crassus

CrassusMarcus CrassusLicinius Crassus
In 71 BCE, Crassus earned an ovation for quashing the Spartacus revolt, and increased his honours by wearing a crown of Jupiter's "triumphal" laurel.
He was the second of three sons born to the eminent senator and vir triumphalis Publius Licinius Crassus Dives (consul 97, censor 89 BC).

Julius Caesar

CaesarGaius Julius CaesarJulius Cæsar
Julius Caesar claimed Venus as both patron and divine ancestress; he funded a new temple to her and dedicated it during his quadruple triumph of 46 BCE.
After an especially great victory, army troops in the field would proclaim their commander imperator, an acclamation necessary for a general to apply to the Senate for a triumph.

Roman Kingdom

Roman monarchyRegal periodmonarchy
He wore the regalia traditionally associated both with the ancient Roman monarchy and with the statue of Jupiter Capitolinus: the purple and gold "toga picta", laurel crown, red boots and, again possibly, the red-painted face of Rome's supreme deity.
His reign is best remembered for introducing the Roman symbols of military and civil offices, and the Roman triumph, being the first Roman to celebrate one.

Marcus Furius Camillus

CamillusM. Furius CamillusFurius Camillus
The dictator Camillus was awarded four triumphs but was eventually exiled.
According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times dictator, and was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome.

Pompey

Pompey the GreatGnaeus Pompeius MagnusPompeius
Pompey postponed his third and most magnificent triumph for several months to make it coincide with his own dies natalis (birthday).
Pompey was consul three times (twice with Marcus Licinius Crassus and once without a partner) and celebrated three Roman triumphs.

Roman Republic

RomanRepublicRomans
By the Late Republican era, triumphs were drawn out and extravagant, motivated by increasing competition among the military-political adventurers who ran Rome's nascent empire, in some cases prolonged by several days of public games and entertainments.
Triumphal generals dressed as Jupiter Capitolinus, and laid their victor's laurels at his feet.

Domitian

Titus Flavius DomitianusAugustusEmperor Domitian
Sculpted panels on the arch of Titus (built by Domitian) celebrate Titus' and Vespasian's joint triumph over the Jews after the siege of Jerusalem, with a triumphal procession of captives and treasures seized from the temple of Jerusalem – some of which funded the building of the Colosseum.
For his victory, the Senate awarded Titus a Roman triumph.