Romance languages

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria, not on socio-functional ones. FP: Franco-Provençal, IR: Istro-Romanian.
Romance languages and dialects
European extent of Romance languages in the 20th century
Number of native speakers of each Romance language, as fractions of the total 690 million (2007)
Romance languages in the World
Length of the Roman rule and the Romance Languages
Romance languages in Europe
Romance languages in the World

The Romance languages, less commonly referred to as Latin languages or Neo-Latin languages, are the various modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the 3rd and 8th centuries.

- Romance languages

500 related topics


Aragonese language

Map of the Occitano-Romance languages: Catalan in red, Occitan in purple and Aragonese in yellow.
The gradual retreat of Aragonese under the pressure of Castilian (Spanish).
Aragonese dialect map
Aragonese expanded into the territories of the Kingdom of Aragon from the 12th to the 16th centuries.

Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by about 12,000 people as of 2011, in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.


A 1902 Issue of La Epoca, a Judeo-Spanish newspaper from Salonica (Thessaloniki) during the Ottoman Empire
The Rashi script, originally used to print the language
Nuevo Silibaryo Espanyol. Judaeo-Spanish textbook, Salonika, 1929
Inscription at Yad Vashem in Hebrew, English, Yiddish, and Judaeo-Spanish

Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (autonym djudeoespanyol, Hebrew script:, Cyrillic: жудеоеспањол), also known as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.

Galician language

Western Ibero-Romance language.

Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Galician (Galician and Portuguese) within the context of its linguistic neighbors between the year 1000 and 2000
Vindel's parchment, containing music and lyrics of several 13th-century cantigas by Martin Codax
One of the oldest legal charters written in Galician, the constitutional charter of the Bo Burgo (Good Burg) of Castro Caldelas, 1228
Mediaeval Galician inscription in a 14th-century house, in Noia: "ESTAS CASAS MANDOU FAZER VASCO DA COSTA, ERA DE MCCCLXXVII" These houses were ordered by Vasco da Costa, era 1377 (1339 AD)
Cantigas de Santa Maria, 13th century
14th-century inscription, in Galician language: 'ESTA : IMAGEE : HE : AQVI : POSTA : POR: ALMA : D(E) : I(O)HA(N) : TVORUM' 'This image is here in exposition for the soul of Joham Tuorum'.
Martín Sarmiento
The 19th-century author Eduardo Pondal
Speakers of Galician as a first language in 2001 and 2011, according to the Galician Institute of Statistics
Galician linguistic areas
Galician-speaking areas outside Galicia (yellow)

Modern Galician is part of the West Iberian languages group, a family of Romance languages that includes the Portuguese language.

Gascon dialect

Trilingual sign in Bayonne: French, Basque, and Gascon Occitan ("Mayretat", "Sindicat d'initiatibe")
According to the testimony of Bernadette Soubirous, the Virgin Mary spoke to her (Lourdes, 25 March 1858) in Gascon saying: Que soy era Immaculada Councepciou ("I am the Immaculate Conception", the phrase is reproduced under this statue in the Lourdes grotto in Mistralian/Febusian spelling), confirming the proclamation of this Catholic dogma four years earlier.

Gascon is the name of the vernacular Romance variety spoken mainly in the region of Gascony, France.

Valencian language

Following the Reconquista Valencian was spoken much further south than is currently the case, in a situation of bilingualism with Castillan. The latter then gradually imposed itself in many zones, with the limit between the two stabilizing around the mid-18th century.
Knowledge of Valencian according to the 2001 census. Note that the light green areas inland and in the southernmost part are not historically Valencian speaking ([[Media:Coneixement del valencià (domini promig)-Cens del 2001.png|large]]).
The main dialects of Catalan. Western Catalan block comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Catalan and Valencian.
Vowels of Valencian, from
Dialects of Valencian
Employees demonstrate in front of the RTVV headquarters in Burjassot the day of its closure
Chronological map showing linguistic evolution of Valencian/Catalan in southwest Europe

Valencian (valencià) or Valencian language (llengua valenciana) is the official, historical and traditional name used in the Valencian Community (Spain), and unofficially in the El Carche comarca in Murcia (Spain), to refer to the Romance language also known as Catalan.


Language within Gallo-Romance originally spoken in east-central France, western Switzerland and northwestern Italy.

Graziadio Isaia Ascoli
Title page of a Franco-Provençal dictionary from Saint-Étienne, France (1896): "The Key to the Gaga Dialect".
Language area map with standard place names and modern political divisions.
Conference hall at the 37th Fête internationale de l'arpitan, Saint-Etienne (France), 2016.
Bilingual road sign (French-Valdôtain) in Introd, Aosta Valley.
Road sign for Charvex (La Balme de Thuy), Haute-Savoie, France after a name change in the 1990s to a historical Savoyard spelling. (Former village name: Charvet.)
Text of a carol about the appearance of a comet in 1682 by Jean Chapelon.
Cé qu'è l'ainô musical score showing verses 1, 2, 4, & 68.
Amélie Gex
Jean-Baptiste Cerlogne originating from Saint-Nicolas, Aosta Valley

Franco-Provençal has several distinct dialects and is separate from but closely related to neighbouring Romance dialects (the langues d'oïl and the langues d'oc, in France, and Rhaeto-Romance in Switzerland and Italy).

Ladin language

Contraction of the area of the Rhaeto-Romance languages
Ladin farmers in 1960s La Val, South Tyrol
Kurat Josef Anton Vian – anonymous author of the first Ladin-Gherdëina grammar AD 1864
Plaque of a Ladin school in Santa Cristina.
Trilingual traffic sign.

Ladin (, also ; autonym: ladin, ladino; Ladinisch) is a Romance language of the Rhaeto-Romance subgroup, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, Trentino, and Belluno, by the Ladin people.

Friulian language

Historical flag of Friûl and the Friulian folk.
Historical linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli presented the theory that Ladin, Romansh and Friulian are from the same family.
Friulian vowel chart. The long vowels are slightly diphthongal, and the blue vowels occur when unstressed.
Road sign in Italian and Friulian.
Sign of the Universitât dâl Friûl in Udine

Friulian or Friulan (natively or marilenghe; friulano; ; furlanščina) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy.

Spanish language

Map indicating places where the language is called castellano (in red) or español (in blue)
The Visigothic Cartularies of Valpuesta, written in a late form of Latin, were declared in 2010 by the Royal Spanish Academy as the record of the earliest words written in Castilian, predating those of the Glosas Emilianenses.
Chronological map showing linguistic evolution in southwest Europe
Antonio de Nebrija, author of Gramática de la lengua castellana, the first grammar of a modern European language.
Percentage of the U.S. population aged 5 and over who speaks Spanish at home in 2019, by states.
Spanish language signage in Malabo, capital city of Equatorial Guinea.
Early flag of the Filipino revolutionaries ("Long live the Philippine Republic!!!"). The first two constitutions were written in Spanish.
Announcement in Spanish on Easter Island, welcoming visitors to Rapa Nui National Park
Miguel de Cervantes, considered by many the greatest author of Spanish literature, and author of Don Quixote, widely considered the first modern European novel.
Spanish vowel chart, from
A world map attempting to identify the main dialects of Spanish.
An examination of the dominance and stress of the voseo feature in Hispanic America. Data generated as illustrated by the Association of Spanish Language Academies. The darker the area, the stronger its dominance.
The Rashi script, originally used to print Judaeo-Spanish.
An original letter in Haketia, written in 1832.
Arms of the Royal Spanish Academy
The Royal Spanish Academy Headquarters in Madrid, Spain.
Countries members of the ASALE.
Cervantes Institute headquarters, Madrid

Spanish ( or, lit. “Castilian”) is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from colloquial spoken Latin in the Iberian Peninsula of Europe.

Piedmontese language

Language spoken by some 2,000,000 people mostly in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy.

Although considered by many linguists a separate language, in Italy it is often mistakenly regarded as an Italian dialect.