Romanian Revolution

1989 RevolutionRevolution1989 Romanian Revolutionfall of CommunismRevolution of 1989fallfall of the regime1989fall of Communism in RomaniaDecember 1989 Revolution
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in the Socialist Republic of Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.wikipedia
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Nicolae Ceaușescu

Nicolae CeauşescuCeauşescuCeaușescu
The Romanian Revolution started in the city of Timișoara and soon spread throughout the country, ultimately culminating in the show trial and execution of longtime Communist Party General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena, and the end of 42 years of Communist rule in Romania.
He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council, from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic, until his overthrow in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989, part of a series of anti-Communist and anti-Soviet Union uprisings in Eastern Europe that year.

Romanian Communist Party

Communist PartyCommunistGeneral Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party
The Romanian Revolution started in the city of Timișoara and soon spread throughout the country, ultimately culminating in the show trial and execution of longtime Communist Party General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena, and the end of 42 years of Communist rule in Romania.
It collapsed in 1989 in the wake of the Romanian Revolution.

National Salvation Front (Romania)

National Salvation FrontFSNCouncil of the National Salvation Front
The National Salvation Front quickly took power after Ceaușescu was toppled, promising free and fair elections within five months.
The National Salvation Front (Frontul Salvării Naționale, FSN) is the name of a political organization that was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution in 1989.

Timișoara

TemesvárTimisoaraTimişoara
The Romanian Revolution started in the city of Timișoara and soon spread throughout the country, ultimately culminating in the show trial and execution of longtime Communist Party General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena, and the end of 42 years of Communist rule in Romania.
In December 1989, Timișoara witnessed a series of mass street protests in what was to become the Romanian Revolution.

Securitate

secret policeCouncil of State SecurityDepartment of State Security
The country's ubiquitous secret police force, the Securitate, which was both one of the largest in the Eastern Bloc and for decades had been the main suppressor of popular dissension, frequently and violently quashing political disagreement, ultimately proved powerless in stopping the looming, and then highly fatal and successful revolt.
Following the overthrow of Nicolae Ceaușescu in 1989, the DSS lived on until 1991, when Parliament approved a law reorganizing the DSS into various subdivisions.

Trial of Nicolae and Elena Ceaușescu

executedshow trialtried and convicted
The Romanian Revolution started in the city of Timișoara and soon spread throughout the country, ultimately culminating in the show trial and execution of longtime Communist Party General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena, and the end of 42 years of Communist rule in Romania.
Marked by irregularities that are typical of kangaroo courts and show trials, the main charge was genocide—namely, murdering "over 60,000 people" during the revolution in Timișoara.

1990 Romanian general election

1990 general elections19901990 elections
Elected in a landslide the following May, the National Salvation Front, reconstituted as a political party, installed a series of economic and democratic reforms, with further social policy changes being implemented by later governments.
They were the first elections held after the overthrow of the Communist regime six months earlier, and also the first public presidential elections.

László Tőkés

Tőkés
Early protests occurred in the city of Timișoara in mid-December on the part of the Hungarian minority in response to an attempt by the government to evict Hungarian Reformed church pastor László Tőkés.
An effort to transfer him from his post as an assistant pastor in Timișoara and to evict him from his church flat helped trigger the Romanian Revolution, which overthrew Nicolae Ceauşescu and spelled the end of the communist era in Romania.

Bucharest

BucureştiBucharest, RomaniaBucurești
Shortly after a botched public speech by Ceaușescu in Bucharest (Romania's capital city) that was broadcast to millions of Romanians on state television, rank-and-file members of the military switched, almost unanimously, from supporting the dictator to backing the protesting population.
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 began with massive anti-Ceaușescu protests in Timișoara in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest, leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime.

Elena Ceaușescu

Elenahis wifeElena Ceauşescu
The Romanian Revolution started in the city of Timișoara and soon spread throughout the country, ultimately culminating in the show trial and execution of longtime Communist Party General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena, and the end of 42 years of Communist rule in Romania.
In March 1980, she was made a First Deputy Prime Minister, a state title she also held until she was executed in the Romanian Revolution.

Ceaușescu's final speech

botched public speechfinal speechmass meeting in Bucharest
Shortly after a botched public speech by Ceaușescu in Bucharest (Romania's capital city) that was broadcast to millions of Romanians on state television, rank-and-file members of the military switched, almost unanimously, from supporting the dictator to backing the protesting population.
It was a pivotal moment in the Romanian Revolution.

Jiu Valley miners' strike of 1977

1977 strikeJiu valley miners' strikelarge-scale miners' strike
The austerity programmes were met with little resistance among Romanians and there were only a few strikes and labour disputes, of which the Jiu Valley miners' strike of 1977 and the Brașov Rebellion of November 1987 at the truck manufacturer Steagul Roșu were the most notable.
The Jiu Valley miners' strike of 1977 was the largest protest movement against the Communist regime in Romania before its final days, ushering in a period of intermittent labour unrest that would last a dozen years, and the most important challenge posed by a group of workers to the regime since the protests triggered by the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.

1980s austerity policy in Romania

austerityausterity measuresausterity measures of the 1980s in Romania
The austerity measures were designed in part by Ceaușescu to repay foreign debts.
The harsh austerity measures negatively affected the living standards of the Romanians, increased shortages and eventually led to the death of Nicolae Ceaușescu and collapse of the Romanian Communist Party through the Romanian Revolution in December 1989.

Hungarians in Romania

Hungariansethnic HungarianHungarian
Early protests occurred in the city of Timișoara in mid-December on the part of the Hungarian minority in response to an attempt by the government to evict Hungarian Reformed church pastor László Tőkés.
In the aftermath of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, ethnic-based political parties were constituted by both the Hungarians, who founded the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, and by the Romanian Transylvanians, who founded the Romanian National Unity Party.

Brașov rebellion

workers rebel1987 Brașov strikeanticommunist revolt in his native Brașov
The austerity programmes were met with little resistance among Romanians and there were only a few strikes and labour disputes, of which the Jiu Valley miners' strike of 1977 and the Brașov Rebellion of November 1987 at the truck manufacturer Steagul Roșu were the most notable.
Beginning in late 1986, the seeds of the Romanian Revolution of 1989 were sown, as workers throughout this Soviet Bloc country mobilized in protest of communist leader Nicolae Ceauşescu's economic policies.

Palace of the Parliament

Palace of the PeopleHouse of the PeopleBoulevard of the Victory of Socialism Complex
There were several megalomaniac projects, such as the construction of the grandiose House of the Republic (today the Palace of the Parliament)—the biggest palace in the world—the adjacent Centrul Civic and a never-completed museum dedicated to communism and Ceaușescu, today the Casa Radio.
Though originally named the House of the Republic when under its long period of construction (Casa Republicii), after the Romanian Revolution in December 1989 it became widely known as The People's House (Casa Poporului).

Cluj-Napoca

ClujKolozsvárKlausenburg
On 11 November 1989, before the party congress, on Bucharest's Brezoianu Street and Cogălniceanu Boulevard students from Cluj-Napoca and Bucharest demonstrated with placards saying, "We want reforms against Ceaușescu government."
During the Romanian Revolution of 1989, Cluj-Napoca was one of the scenes of the rebellion: 26 were killed and approximately 170 injured.

Deșteaptă-te, române!

national anthem of RomaniaNational Anthem DayRomanian National Anthem
Expecting that they would be fired upon, they started to sing "Deșteaptă-te, române!" ("Awaken thee, Romanian!"), an earlier patriotic song that had been banned since 1947.
Since then, this song, which contains a message of liberty and patriotism, has been sung during all major Romanian conflicts, including during the 1989 anti-Ceaușist revolution.

Emil Bobu

Meanwhile, Emil Bobu (Secretary to the Central Committee) and Prime Minister Constantin Dăscălescu were sent by Elena Ceaușescu (Nicolae being at that time in Iran) to resolve the situation.
He was an influential figure in the later years of the Communist regime until his downfall during the 1989 Revolution.

Revolution Square, Bucharest

Revolution SquarePalace SquarePiata Constitutiei
Several busloads of workers, under threat of being fired, arrived in Bucharest's Piața Palatului (Palace Square, now Piața Revoluției – Revolution Square) and were given red flags, banners and large pictures of Ceaușescu.
Known as Piața Palatului (Palace Square) until 1989, it was later renamed after the Romanian Revolution in 1989.

Ion Iliescu

Ion IlieskuPresident IliescuPresident Ion Iliescu
In the afternoon, Stănculescu "chose" Ion Iliescu's political group from among others that were striving for power in the aftermath of the recent events.
He had a leading role in the Romanian Revolution, becoming the country's president in December 1989.

Constantin Dăscălescu

Meanwhile, Emil Bobu (Secretary to the Central Committee) and Prime Minister Constantin Dăscălescu were sent by Elena Ceaușescu (Nicolae being at that time in Iran) to resolve the situation.
Constantin Dăscălescu (2 July 1923 – 15 May 2003) was a Romanian communist politician who served as Prime Minister of Romania (21 May 1982 – 22 December 1989) during the communist rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu until the Romanian Revolution.

Flag of Romania

Romanian tricolorRomanian flagRomania
Defying the curfew, a group of 30 young men headed for the Orthodox cathedral, where they stopped and waved a Romanian flag from which they had removed the Romanian Communist coat of arms.
Starting on 17 December 1989, during the revolution at Timișoara, the protesters began waving flags with the Communist coat of arms cut out of the middle.

Victor Stănculescu

Upon learning of Milea's death, Ceaușescu appointed Victor Stănculescu minister of defence.
He played a central role in the overthrow of the dictatorship by refusing to carry out the orders of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu during the Romanian Revolution of 1989.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in the Socialist Republic of Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.