Romanization

romanizedromanizeromanisationromanisedLatinizedromanizingLatinizationRomantr.Latinisation
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.wikipedia
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Latin alphabet

LatinRomanLatin letters
Simplicity – Since the basic Latin alphabet has a smaller number of letters than many other writing systems, digraphs, diacritics, or special characters must be used to represent them all in Latin script. This affects the ease of creation, digital storage and transmission, reproduction, and reading of the romanized text.
Due to its use in writing Germanic, Romance, and other languages first in Europe and then in other parts of the world and due to its use in Romanizing writing of other languages, it has become widespread (see Latin script).

Digraph (orthography)

digraphdigraphsdouble vowel
Simplicity – Since the basic Latin alphabet has a smaller number of letters than many other writing systems, digraphs, diacritics, or special characters must be used to represent them all in Latin script. This affects the ease of creation, digital storage and transmission, reproduction, and reading of the romanized text.
Digraphs are used in some Romanization schemes, like the zh often used to represent the Russian letter ж.

Hepburn romanization

Hepburnromanisedromanized
The popular Hepburn romanization of Japanese is an example of a transcriptive romanization designed for English speakers.
It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries.

Writing system

scriptwriting systemsscripts
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both.
The creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, and even numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is usually called romanization.

Beta Code

Beta Code
Its aim is to be not merely a romanization of the Greek alphabet, but to represent faithfully a wide variety of source texts – including formatting as well as rare or idiosyncratic characters.

ALA-LC romanization

ALA-LCALAALA-LC method
ALA-LC (1997) ISO 15919 (2001): A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic consonants and vowels to the Latin script. See also Transliteration of Indic scripts: how to use ISO 15919. The Devanagari-specific portion is very similar to the academic standard, IAST: "International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration", and to the United States Library of Congress standard, ALA-LC, although there are a few differences ALA-LC: Used to be similar to Wade–Giles, but converted to Hanyu Pinyin in 2000
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.

International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration

IASTStandard Indic transliterationtransliterated
ISO 15919 (2001): A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic consonants and vowels to the Latin script. See also Transliteration of Indic scripts: how to use ISO 15919. The Devanagari-specific portion is very similar to the academic standard, IAST: "International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration", and to the United States Library of Congress standard, ALA-LC, although there are a few differences The National Library at Kolkata romanization, intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.

ISO 15919

ISOISO 15919 transliterationsTransliteration
ISO 15919 (2001): A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic consonants and vowels to the Latin script. See also Transliteration of Indic scripts: how to use ISO 15919. The Devanagari-specific portion is very similar to the academic standard, IAST: "International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration", and to the United States Library of Congress standard, ALA-LC, although there are a few differences
ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization by the International Organization for Standardization.

National Library at Kolkata romanisation

Tamil romanisationNLKNational Library at Kolkata romanization
The National Library at Kolkata romanization, intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST
The National Library at Kolkata romanisation transliteration is the most widely used scheme in dictionaries and grammars of Indic languages.

Buckwalter transliteration

BuckwalterBuckwalter transcription
Buckwalter transliteration (1990s): Developed at Xerox by Tim Buckwalter; doesn't require unusual diacritics
It is an ASCII only transliteration scheme, representing Arabic orthography strictly one-to-one, unlike the more common romanization schemes that add morphological information not expressed in Arabic script.

ISO 233

ISO 233 (1984). Transliteration.
The international standard ISO 233 establishes a system for Arabic and Syriac transliteration (Romanization).

Latinxua Sin Wenz

Sin Wenzwriting system based on the Latin alphabet
Latinxua Sin Wenz (1926): Omitted tone sounds. Used mainly in the Soviet Union and Xinjiang in the 1930s. Predecessor of Hanyu Pinyin.
Latinxua Sin Wenz (also known as Sin Wenz "New Script", Zhungguo Latinxua Sin Wenz "China Romanized New Script", Latinxua "Romanization") is a historical set of romanizations for Chinese languages, although references to Sin Wenz usually refer to Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz, which was designed for Mandarin Chinese.

Pinyin

pHanyu PinyinPīnyīn
Latinxua Sin Wenz (1926): Omitted tone sounds. Used mainly in the Soviet Union and Xinjiang in the 1930s. Predecessor of Hanyu Pinyin. ALA-LC: Used to be similar to Wade–Giles, but converted to Hanyu Pinyin in 2000
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.

École française d'Extrême-Orient

École Française d'Extrême OrientÉcole française d'Extrême-Orient (EFEO)Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient
EFEO. Developed by École française d'Extrême-Orient in the 19th century, used mainly in France.
A romanization system for Mandarin was developed by the EFEO.

Tongyong Pinyin

Tongyong
3) Tongyong Pinyin (2002–2008), and
Tongyong Pinyin was the official romanization of Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008.

Gwoyeu Romatzyh

Guoyu LuomaziGwoRo
1) Gwoyeu Romatzyh (GR, 1928–1986, in Taiwan 1945–1986; Taiwan used Japanese Romaji before 1945),
Gwoyeu Romatzyh (pinyin: Guóyǔ Luómǎzì, literally "National Language Romanization"), abbreviated GR, is a system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet.

Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II

MPS II
2) Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (MPS II, 1986–2002),
Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II, abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Jyutping

CantonesejJyutping:
Jyutping
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993.

Meyer–Wempe

Meyer, B. and Wempe, T.
Meyer–Wempe
Meyer–Wempe romanization was the system used by two Roman Catholic missionaries in Hong Kong, Bernard F. Meyer and Theodore F. Wempe, for romanizing Cantonese in their Student's Cantonese English Dictionary published in 1935.

Wade–Giles

formerlyformerly romanizedw
Wade–Giles (1892): Transliteration. Very popular from the 19th century until recently and continues to be used by some Western academics.
Taiwan has used Wade–Giles for decades as the de facto standard, co-existing with several official romanizations in succession, namely, Gwoyeu Romatzyh (1928), Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (1986), and Tongyòng Pinyin (2000).

Cantonese Pinyin

Pinyin
Cantonese Pinyin
Cantonese Pinyin (, also known as 教院式拼音方案) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by Rev. Yu Ping Chiu in 1971, and subsequently modified by the Education Department (merged into the Education and Manpower Bureau since 2003) of Hong Kong and Prof. Zhan Bohui of the Chinese Dialects Research Centre of the Jinan University, Guangdong, PRC, and honorary professor of the School of Chinese, University of Hong Kong.

United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names

UNGEGNUnited Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN)
UNGEGN (1972)
Working Group on Romanization Systems

Phonetic transcription

phonetic alphabetbroad transcriptionphonetic symbol
Transcription methods can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision.
Romanization

Sanskrit

Skt.classical SanskritSanskrit language
There is a long tradition in the west to study Sanskrit and other Indic texts in Latin transliteration.
From the 20th century onwards, because of production costs, textual editions edited by Western scholars have mostly been in Romanised transliteration.

ITRANS

ITRANS: a transliteration scheme into 7-bit ASCII created by Avinash Chopde that used to be prevalent on Usenet.
Like the Harvard-Kyoto scheme, the ITRANS romanization only uses diacritical signs found on the common English-language computer keyboard, and it is quite easy to read and pick up.