Romanization of Japanese

romanizedrōmajiromajiromanizationJapanese romanizationroman lettersromanisedromanized JapanesetransliteratedJapanese Romaji
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.wikipedia
378 Related Articles

Hepburn romanization

Hepburnromanisedromanized
The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization (ISO 3602), and Nihon-shiki romanization (ISO 3602 Strict).
Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language.

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
Elongated vowels are usually denoted with a line over the vowel (a macron) in rōmaji, a repeated vowel character in hiragana, or a chōonpu succeeding the vowel in katakana.

Romanization

romanizedromanizeromanisation
There are several different romanization systems.
Romanization (or, more generally, Roman letters) is called "rōmaji" in Japanese.

Japanese writing system

JapaneseJapanese charactersJapanese writing
In the Meiji era (1868–1912), some Japanese scholars advocated abolishing the Japanese writing system entirely and using rōmaji instead.
Romanized Japanese is most frequently used by foreign students of Japanese who have not yet mastered kana, and by native speakers for computer input.

Aesop's Fables

AesopAesop's fableFables
The Jesuits also printed some secular books in romanized Japanese, including the first printed edition of the Japanese classic The Tale of the Heike, romanized as Feiqe no monogatari, and a collection of Aesop's Fables (romanized as Esopo no fabulas). The latter continued to be printed and read after the suppression of Christianity in Japan (Chibbett, 1977).
Portuguese missionaries arriving in Japan at the end of the 16th century introduced Japan to the fables when a Latin edition was translated into romanized Japanese.

Japanese script reform

adopted spelling reformadvocatedHyōgai Kanji Glyph List
However, that policy failed and a more moderate attempt at Japanese script reform followed.
The report pointed out the difficulties concerning kanji use, and advocated the use of rōmaji, which they considered more convenient.

Nippo Jisho

dictionariesVocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapamfirst Japanese–Portuguese dictionary
The most useful of these books for the study of early modern Japanese pronunciation and early attempts at romanization was the Nippo jisho, a Japanese–Portuguese dictionary written in 1603.
The creators of the Nippo Jisho devised a system of romanizing the Japanese language for Portuguese that is different from the commonly used Hepburn system of today, used for English.

Kaidan

ghost storiesJapanese ghost storiesJapanese ghost story
For example, Lafcadio Hearn's book Kwaidan shows the older kw- pronunciation; in modern Hepburn romanization, this would be written Kaidan.
The spelling kwaidan is a romanization based on an archaic spelling of the word in kana - Hearn used it since the stories in the book were equally archaic.

Kana

Japanese syllabaryJapanese KanaJapanese syllabaries
Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts (kana) that also ultimately derive from Chinese characters.
Romanization of Japanese

Wāpuro rōmaji

wāpurotyping Japanese
Notably, the various mappings that Japanese input methods use to convert keystrokes on a Roman keyboard to kana often combine features of all of the systems; when used as plain text rather than being converted, these are usually known as wāpuro rōmaji.
, or kana spelling, is a style of romanization of Japanese originally devised for entering Japanese into word processors while using a Western QWERTY keyboard.

Japanese input methods

enteringentering the sokuon using a computer or word-processorinput method
Notably, the various mappings that Japanese input methods use to convert keystrokes on a Roman keyboard to kana often combine features of all of the systems; when used as plain text rather than being converted, these are usually known as wāpuro rōmaji.
One is via a romanized version of Japanese called rōmaji (literally "Roman character"), and the other is via keyboard keys corresponding to the Japanese kana.

Eleanor Jorden

Eleanor Harz JordenDr. Eleanor Harz JordenE. H. Jordan
It was created for Eleanor Harz Jorden's system of Japanese language teaching.
The latter text included Jorden's JSL system of rōmaji for transcribing Japanese into Roman script.

Nihon-shiki romanization

Nihon-shikiJapanese recordsnihon
The three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization (ISO 3602), and Nihon-shiki romanization (ISO 3602 Strict).
In discussion about romaji, it is abbreviated as Nihon-shiki or Nippon-shiki.

Sokuon

/Q/doubling of the first consonant of the second syllable
There is no universally accepted style of romanization for the smaller versions of the vowels and y-row kana when used outside the normal combinations (きゃ, きょ, ファ etc.), nor for the sokuon or small tsu kana っ/ッ when it is not directly followed by a consonant.
The main use is to mark a geminate consonant, which is represented in rōmaji (romanized Japanese) by the doubling of the consonant (except when the following consonant is ch). It denotes the gemination of the initial consonant of the kana that follows it.

Diacritic

diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
Typical additions include tone marks to note the Japanese pitch accent and diacritic marks to distinguish phonological changes, such as the assimilation of the moraic nasal (see Japanese phonology).
Romanized Japanese (Romaji) occasionally uses macrons to mark long vowels. The Hepburn romanization system uses macrons to mark long vowels, and the Kunrei-shiki and Nihon-shiki systems use a circumflex.

Arte da Lingoa de Iapam

grammarsJapanese grammarJapanese-Portuguese dictionary
1604: Arte da Lingoa de Iapam (1604–1608)
Volume 1 is an outline of fundamental Japanese grammar. It discusses the declension of nouns and pronouns with respect to case particles, the conjugation of verbs with respect to mood and tense, categorizes the language into ten parts of speech, discusses honorifics, as well as romanization orthography.

Transcription into Japanese

into Japaneserenditiontranscription
Transcription into Japanese
Romanization of Japanese

Latin script

LatinLatin alphabetRoman
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.

Logogram

logographiclogographlogograms
Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts (kana) that also ultimately derive from Chinese characters.

Kanji

on'yomikun'yomicharacters
Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts (kana) that also ultimately derive from Chinese characters.

Syllabary

syllabicsyllabariessyllabic script
Japanese is normally written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts (kana) that also ultimately derive from Chinese characters.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
All Japanese who have attended elementary school since World War II have been taught to read and write romanized Japanese.

Portuguese orthography

Portugueseorthography of Portuguesea'''g'''ora
The earliest Japanese romanization system was based on Portuguese orthography.

Society of Jesus

JesuitJesuitsS.J.
Jesuit priests used the system in a series of printed Catholic books so that missionaries could preach and teach their converts without learning to read Japanese orthography.

Vowel

vowelsvowel heightV
In general, the early Portuguese system was similar to Nihon-shiki in its treatment of vowels.