Romanticism

RomanticRomantic movementRomantic eraRomanticistRomanticsRomantic periodRomantic literatureromanceromanticizedRomanticists
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.wikipedia
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Sturm und Drang

Storm and StressSturm and DrangSturm-und-Drang
Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors.
Sturm und Drang ({{IPAc-en|,|S|t|ʊə|m|_|U|n|t|_|'|d|r|{|N|,_|'|d|r|a:|N}} ;, literally "storm and drive", though usually translated as "storm and stress") was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

ColeridgeSamuel ColeridgeS. T. Coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were natural laws the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 1772 – 25 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.

Realism (art movement)

RealismRealistrealistic
In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.
Realists rejected Romanticism, which had dominated French literature and art since the early 19th century.

William Wordsworth

WordsworthWilliamWordsworthian
For William Wordsworth, poetry should begin as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings", which the poet then "recollect[s] in tranquility", evoking a new but corresponding emotion the poet can then mold into art.
William Wordsworth (7 April 1770 – 23 April 1850) was an English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads (1798).

Lord Byron

ByronGeorge Gordon ByronGeorge Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron
In England Wordsworth wrote in a preface to his poems of 1815 of the "romantic harp" and "classic lyre", but in 1820 Byron could still write, perhaps slightly disingenuously, "I perceive that in Germany, as well as in Italy, there is a great struggle about what they call 'Classical' and 'Romantic', terms which were not subjects of classification in England, at least when I left it four or five years ago".
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known simply as Lord Byron, was an English poet, peer, and politician who became a revolutionary in the Greek War of Independence, and is considered one of the historical leading figures of the Romantic movement of his era.

Germaine de Staël

Madame de StaëlAnne Louise Germaine de StaëlMadame de Stael
The use of the word, invented by Friedrich Schlegel, did not become general very quickly, and was probably spread more widely in France by its persistent use by Germaine de Staël in her De l'Allemagne (1813), recounting her travels in Germany.
Her works, both novels and travel literature, with emphasis on passion, individuality and oppositional politics made their mark on European Romanticism.

Romantic music

RomanticRomanticismRomantic era
In other fields and other countries the period denominated as Romantic can be considerably different; musical Romanticism, for example, is generally regarded as only having ceased as a major artistic force as late as 1910, but in an extreme extension the Four Last Songs of Richard Strauss are described stylistically as "Late Romantic" and were composed in 1946–48.
It is closely related to the broader concept of Romanticism—the intellectual, artistic and literary movement that became prominent in Western Europe from approximately 1800 until 1850.

François-René de Chateaubriand

ChateaubriandFrançois-René ChateaubriandFrançois René de Chateaubriand
Arthur Lovejoy attempted to demonstrate the difficulty of defining Romanticism in his seminal article "On The Discrimination of Romanticisms" in his Essays in the History of Ideas (1948); some scholars see Romanticism as essentially continuous with the present, some like Robert Hughes see in it the inaugural moment of modernity, and some like Chateaubriand, Novalis and Samuel Taylor Coleridge see it as the beginning of a tradition of resistance to Enlightenment rationalism—a "Counter-Enlightenment"— to be associated most closely with German Romanticism.
François-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand (1768–1848) was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian who founded Romanticism in French literature.

Alfred de Vigny

VignyDe Vigny
The key generation of French Romantics born between 1795–1805 had, in the words of one of their number, Alfred de Vigny, been "conceived between battles, attended school to the rolling of drums".
Alfred Victor, Comte de Vigny (27 March 1797 – 17 September 1863) was a French poet and early leader of French Romanticism.

Francisco Goya

GoyaFrancisco de GoyaFrancisco José de Goya y Lucientes
This movement was led by France, with Balzac and Flaubert in literature and Courbet in painting; Stendhal and Goya were important precursors of Realism in their respective media.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
Arthur Lovejoy attempted to demonstrate the difficulty of defining Romanticism in his seminal article "On The Discrimination of Romanticisms" in his Essays in the History of Ideas (1948); some scholars see Romanticism as essentially continuous with the present, some like Robert Hughes see in it the inaugural moment of modernity, and some like Chateaubriand, Novalis and Samuel Taylor Coleridge see it as the beginning of a tradition of resistance to Enlightenment rationalism—a "Counter-Enlightenment"— to be associated most closely with German Romanticism. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. The Romantic movement in literature was preceded by the Enlightenment and succeeded by Realism.
After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by the intellectual movement known as Romanticism.

Edgar Allan Poe

PoeEdgar Allen PoeEdgar Poe
Furthermore, several romantic authors, such as Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne, based their writings on the supernatural/occult and human psychology.
He is widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and of American literature as a whole, and he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the short story.

M. H. Abrams

M.H. AbramsAbrams, M. H.Abrams, M.H.
In English literature, M. H. Abrams placed it between 1789, or 1798, this latter a very typical view, and about 1830, perhaps a little later than some other critics.
H. Abrams', was an American literary critic, known for works on romanticism, in particular his book The Mirror and the Lamp''.

Impromptu

It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu).

Gustave Courbet

CourbetGustav CourbetCourbet, Gustave
This movement was led by France, with Balzac and Flaubert in literature and Courbet in painting; Stendhal and Goya were important precursors of Realism in their respective media.
Committed to painting only what he could see, he rejected academic convention and the Romanticism of the previous generation of visual artists.

Realism (arts)

realismrealistrealistic
The end of the Romantic era is marked in some areas by a new style of Realism, which affected literature, especially the novel and drama, painting, and even music, through Verismo opera.
The Realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century.

Originality

originaloriginal workoriginals
As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential.
The modern idea of originality is tied to Romanticism, by a notion that is often called romantic originality.

Thomas Chatterton

ChattertonRowley poemsA Life of Thomas Chatterton
Thomas Chatterton is generally considered the first Romantic poet in English.
He was an influence on Romantic artists of the period such as Shelley, Keats, Wordsworth and Coleridge.

Literary realism

realismrealistrealistic
The Romantic movement in literature was preceded by the Enlightenment and succeeded by Realism.
The realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century.

Ossian

OssianicFragments of Ancient Poetry collected in the Highlands of ScotlandOssian controversy
The Scottish poet James Macpherson influenced the early development of Romanticism with the international success of his Ossian cycle of poems published in 1762, inspiring both Goethe and the young Walter Scott.
The work was internationally popular, translated into all the literary languages of Europe and was highly influential both in the development of the Romantic movement and the Gaelic revival.

Walter Scott

Sir Walter ScottScottSir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet
The Scottish poet James Macpherson influenced the early development of Romanticism with the international success of his Ossian cycle of poems published in 1762, inspiring both Goethe and the young Walter Scott.
Scott's knowledge of history, and his facility with literary technique, made him a seminal figure in the establishment of the historical novel genre, as well as an exemplar of European literary Romanticism.

Ludwig Tieck

TieckJohann Ludwig TieckLudwig
Important writers were Ludwig Tieck, Novalis (Heinrich von Ofterdingen, 1799), Heinrich von Kleist and Friedrich Hölderlin.
He was one of the founding fathers of the Romantic movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Historiography

historiographicalhistoriographerhistoriographic
It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences.
The study of history changed during the Enlightenment and Romanticism.

E. T. A. Hoffmann

E.T.A. HoffmannHoffmannErnst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann
The later German Romanticism of, for example E. T. A. Hoffmann's Der Sandmann (The Sandman), 1817, and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff's Das Marmorbild (The Marble Statue), 1819, was darker in its motifs and has gothic elements.
T. A. Hoffmann; born Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann'''; 24 January 1776 – 25 June 1822) was a German Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic and artist.

Charles Baudelaire

BaudelaireCharles Pierre BaudelaireBaudelairian
An earlier definition comes from Charles Baudelaire: "Romanticism is precisely situated neither in choice of subject nor exact truth, but in the way of feeling."
In 1846, Baudelaire wrote his second Salon review, gaining additional credibility as an advocate and critic of Romanticism.