A report on Rome

Roman representation of the god Tiber, Capitoline Hill in Rome
Capitoline Wolf, a sculpture of the mythical she-wolf suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus
The Ancient-Imperial-Roman palaces of the Palatine, a series of palaces located in the Palatine Hill, express power and wealth of emperors from Augustus until the 4th century.
The Imperial fora belong to a series of monumental fora (public squares) constructed in Rome by the emperors. Also seen in the image is Trajan's Market.
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, approximately 6.5 e6km2 of land surface.
The Roman Forum are the remains of those buildings that during most of Ancient Rome's time represented the political, legal, religious and economic centre of the city and the neuralgic centre of all the Roman civilisation.
Trajan's Column, triumphal column and place where the relics of Emperor Trajan are placed.
The Pyramid of Cestius and the Aurelian Walls
15th-century illustration depicting the Sack of Rome (410) by the Visigothic king Alaric I
Detail view on an illustration by Raphael portraying the crowning of Charlemagne in Old Saint Peter's Basilica, on 25 December 800
Almost 500 years old, this map of Rome by Mario Cartaro (from 1575) shows the city's primary monuments.
Castel Sant'Angelo or Hadrian's Mausoleum, is a Roman monument radically altered in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance built in 134 AD and crowned with 16th and 17th-century statues.
Fontana della Barcaccia by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1629
Carnival in Rome, c. 1650
A View of the Piazza Navona, Rome, Hendrik Frans van Lint, c. 1730
Bombardment of Rome by Allied planes, 1943
The municipi of Rome
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
The Palazzo del Quirinale, now seat of the President of the Italian Republic
Satellite image of Rome
Aerial view of part of Rome's Centro Storico
Stone pines in the Villa Doria Pamphili
The Esquilino rione
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, one of the four papal major basilicas and has numerous architectural styles, built between the 4th century and 1743
St. Peter's Basilica at night from Via della Conciliazione in Rome
The Pantheon, built as a temple dedicated to "all the gods of the past, present and future"
The Colosseum is still today the largest amphitheater in the world. It was used for gladiator shows and other public events (hunting shows, recreations of famous battles and dramas based on classical mythology).
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument
The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana in EUR district
The Temple of Aesculapius, in the Villa Borghese gardens
The Trevi Fountain. Construction began during the time of Ancient Rome and was completed in 1762 by a design of Nicola Salvi.
Fontana dei Fiumi by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1648
Flaminio Obelisk, Piazza del Popolo
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II at sunset
The Vatican Caves, the place where many popes are buried
Rome chamber of commerce in the ancient Temple of Hadrian
The Sapienza University of Rome, founded in 1303
Biblioteca Casanatense
National Central Library
The Teatro dell'Opera di Roma at the Piazza Beniamino Gigli
The Spanish Steps
Ostia Lido beach
The Vatican Museums are the 3rd most visited art museum in the world.
Via Condotti
Spaghetti alla carbonara, a typical Roman dish
Concia di zucchine, an example of Roman-Jewish cuisine
Sepulchral inscription for Tiberius Claudius Tiberinus, a Plebeian and professional declaimer of poetry. 1st century AD, Museo Nazionale Romano
Stadio Olimpico, home of A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, is one of the largest in Europe, with a capacity of over 70,000.
Stadio dei Marmi
Rome–Fiumicino Airport was the tenth busiest airport in Europe in 2016.
Port of Civitavecchia
Roma Metrorail and Underground map, 2016
Conca d'Oro metro station
FAO headquarters in Rome, Circo Massimo
WFP headquarters in Rome
Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the Square Samuel-Paty in Paris
Column dedicated to Paris in 1956 near the Baths of Diocletian
The Piazza della Repubblica, Rome
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome's Cathedral, built in 324, and partly rebuilt between 1660 and 1734

Capital city of Italy.

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Italy

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Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.
The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin)
Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds.
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Italian Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I. It was inaugurated in 1911, on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy.
The fascist dictator Benito Mussolini titled himself Duce and ruled the country from 1922 to 1943.
Areas controlled by the Italian Empire at its peak
Italian partisans in Milan during the Italian Civil War, April 1945
Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union
Funerals of the victims of the Bologna bombing of 2 August 1980, the deadliest attack ever perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead
Italian government task force to face the COVID-19 emergency
Topographic map of Italy
Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands
National and regional parks in Italy
Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park.
The Italian wolf, the national animal of Italy
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Italy.
The Supreme Court of Cassation, Rome
An Alfa Romeo 159 vehicle of the Carabinieri corps
Group photo of the G7 leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina
Heraldic coat of arms of the Italian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Italy exports, 2019
Milan is the economic capital of Italy, and is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.
A Carrara marble quarry
The Autostrada dei Laghi ("Lakes Motorway"), the first motorway built in the world
FS' Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h
Trieste, the main port of the northern Adriatic and starting point of the Transalpine Pipeline
ENI is considered one of the world's oil and gas "Supermajors".
Solar panels in Piombino. Italy is one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy.
Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, physics and astronomy
Enrico Fermi, creator of the world's first first nuclear reactor
The Amalfi Coast is one of Italy's major tourist destinations.
Map of Italy's population density at the 2011 census
Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe and North Africa.
Linguistic map showing the languages spoken in Italy
Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory
Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the world's oldest academic institution.
Olive oil and vegetables are central to the Mediterranean diet.
Carnival of Venice
The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
The Birth of Venus (1484–1486), Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the mount of Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco, 1465
Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of modern political science and ethics
Pinocchio is one of the world's most translated books and a canonical piece of children's literature.
Clockwise from top left: Thomas Aquinas, proponent of natural theology and the Father of Thomism; Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the Western world; Cesare Beccaria, considered the Father of criminal justice and modern criminal law; and Maria Montessori, credited with the creation of the Montessori education
La Scala opera house
Statues of Pantalone and Harlequin, two stock characters from the Commedia dell'arte, in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala
Dario Fo, one of the most widely performed playwrights in modern theatre, received international acclaim for his highly improvisational style.
Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire
Luciano Pavarotti, considered one of the finest tenors of the 20th century and the "King of the High Cs"
Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of Italo disco and electronic dance music, is known as the "Father of disco".
Entrance to Cinecittà in Rome
The Azzurri in 2012. Football is the most popular sport in Italy.
Starting in 1909, the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours' second oldest.
A Ferrari SF21 by Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful Formula One team
Prada shop at Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan
The traditional recipe for spaghetti with tomato and basil sauce
Italian wine and salumi
The Frecce Tricolori, with the smoke trails representing the national colours of Italy, during the celebrations of the Festa della Repubblica
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world.

A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital and largest city, the country covers a total area of 301230 km2 and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, as well as the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino.

Roman Empire

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The post-Republican period of ancient Rome.

The post-Republican period of ancient Rome.

The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
The Augustus of Prima Porta
(early 1st century AD)
The Roman Empire in AD 117 at its greatest extent, at the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
The Barbarian Invasions consisted of the movement of (mainly) ancient Germanic peoples into Roman territory. Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the 4th century and lasted for many centuries, during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne. Historically, this event marked the transition between classical antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The Roman Empire by 476
The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial Period. Data source: Hanson, J. W. (2016), Cities database, (OXREP databases). Version 1.0. (link).
A segment of the ruins of Hadrian's Wall in northern England, overlooking Crag Lough
A 5th-century papyrus showing a parallel Latin-Greek text of a speech by Cicero
Bilingual Latin-Punic inscription at the theatre in Leptis Magna, Roman Africa (present-day Libya)
A multigenerational banquet depicted on a wall painting from Pompeii (1st century AD)
Citizen of Roman Egypt (Fayum mummy portrait)
Dressing of a priestess or bride, Roman fresco from Herculaneum, Italy (30–40 AD)
Slave holding writing tablets for his master (relief from a 4th-century sarcophagus)
Cinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughter
Fragment of a sarcophagus depicting Gordian III and senators (3rd century)
Condemned man attacked by a leopard in the arena (3rd-century mosaic from Tunisia)
Forum of Gerasa (Jerash in present-day Jordan), with columns marking a covered walkway (stoa) for vendor stalls, and a semicircular space for public speaking
Reconstructed statue of Augustus as Jove, holding scepter and orb (first half of 1st century AD).
Antoninus Pius (reigned 138–161), wearing a toga (Hermitage Museum)
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138) showing the location of the Roman legions deployed in 125 AD
Relief panel from Trajan's Column in Rome, showing the building of a fort and the reception of a Dacian embassy
The Pula Arena in Croatia is one of the largest and most intact of the remaining Roman amphitheatres.
Personification of the River Nile and his children, from the Temple of Serapis and Isis in Rome (1st century AD)
A green Roman glass cup unearthed from an Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD) tomb in Guangxi, southern China; the earliest Roman glassware found in China was discovered in a Western Han tomb in Guangzhou, dated to the early 1st century BC, and ostensibly came via the maritime route through the South China Sea
Solidus issued under Constantine II, and on the reverse Victoria, one of the last deities to appear on Roman coins, gradually transforming into an angel under Christian rule
Landscape resulting from the ruina montium mining technique at Las Médulas, Spain, one of the most important gold mines in the Roman Empire
The Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map") an Itinerarium, often assumed to be based on the Roman cursus publicus, the network of state-maintained roads.
A map of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a Greco-Roman Periplus
Workers at a cloth-processing shop, in a painting from the fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii
Roman hunters during the preparations, set-up of traps, and in-action hunting near Tarraco
Amphitheatres of the Roman Empire
Construction on the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum (Italy), began during the reign of Vespasian.
The Pont du Gard aqueduct, which crosses the river Gardon in southern France, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
Cityscape from the Villa Boscoreale (60s AD)
Aquae Sulis in Bath, England: architectural features above the level of the pillar bases are a later reconstruction.
Public toilets (latrinae) from Ostia Antica
Reconstructed peristyle garden based on the House of the Vettii
Birds and fountain within a garden setting, with oscilla (hanging masks) above, in a painting from Pompeii
Bread stall, from a Pompeiian wall painting
An Ostian taberna for eating and drinking; the faded painting over the counter pictured eggs, olives, fruit and radishes.
Still life on a 2nd-century Roman mosaic
Wall painting depicting a sports riot at the amphitheatre of Pompeii, which led to the banning of gladiator combat in the town
A victor in his four-horse chariot
The Zliten mosaic, from a dining room in present-day Libya, depicts a series of arena scenes: from top, musicians playing a Roman tuba, a water pipe organ and two horns; six pairs of gladiators with two referees; four beast fighters; and three convicts condemned to the beasts
Boys and girls playing ball games (2nd-century relief from the Louvre)
So-called "bikini girls" mosaic from the Villa del Casale, Roman Sicily, 4th century
Stone game board from Aphrodisias: boards could also be made of wood, with deluxe versions in costly materials such as ivory; game pieces or counters were bone, glass, or polished stone, and might be coloured or have markings or images
Women from the wall painting at the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii
Claudius wearing an early Imperial toga (see a later, more structured toga above), and the pallium as worn by a priest of Serapis, sometimes identified as the emperor Julian
The Aldobrandini Wedding, 27 BC – 14 AD
The Wedding of Zephyrus and Chloris (54–68 AD, Pompeian Fourth Style) within painted architectural panels from the Casa del Naviglio
The bronze Drunken Satyr, excavated at Herculaneum and exhibited in the 18th century, inspired an interest among later sculptors in similar "carefree" subjects.
On the Ludovisi sarcophagus, an example of the battle scenes favoured during the Crisis of the Third Century, the "writhing and highly emotive" Romans and Goths fill the surface in a packed, anti-classical composition
The Primavera of Stabiae, perhaps the goddess Flora
The Triumph of Neptune floor mosaic from Africa Proconsularis (present-day Tunisia), celebrating agricultural success with allegories of the Seasons, vegetation, workers and animals viewable from multiple perspectives in the room (latter 2nd century)
Actor dressed as a king and two muses. Fresco from Herculaneum, 30–40 AD
All-male theatrical troupe preparing for a masked performance, on a mosaic from the House of the Tragic Poet
Pride in literacy was displayed in portraiture through emblems of reading and writing, as in this example of a couple from Pompeii (Portrait of Paquius Proculo).
Reconstruction of a writing tablet: the stylus was used to inscribe letters into the wax surface for drafts, casual letterwriting, and schoolwork, while texts meant to be permanent were copied onto papyrus.
A teacher with two students, as a third arrives with his loculus, a writing case that would contain pens, ink pot, and a sponge to correct errors
Mosaic from Pompeii depicting the Academy of Plato
Portrait of a literary woman from Pompeii (ca. 50 AD)
A fresco in Pompeii depicting a poet (thought to be Euphorion) and a female reading a diptych
Statue in Constanța, Romania (the ancient colony Tomis), commemorating Ovid's exile
Brescia Casket, an ivory box with Biblical imagery (late 4th century)
Silver cup, from the Boscoreale Treasure (early 1st century AD)
Finely decorated Gallo-Roman terra sigillata bowl
Gold earrings with gemstones, 3rd century
Glass cage cup from the Rhineland, 4th century
Dionysus (Bacchus) with long torch sitting on a throne, with Helios (Sol), Aphrodite (Venus) and other gods. Fresco from Pompeii.
A Roman priest, his head ritually covered with a fold of his toga, extends a patera in a gesture of libation (2nd–3rd century)
Statuettes representing Roman and Gallic deities, for personal devotion at private shrines
thumb|upright=0.6|The Pompeii Lakshmi, an ivory statuette from the Indian subcontinent found in the ruins of Pompeii
Relief from the Arch of Titus in Rome depicting a menorah and other spoils from the Temple of Jerusalem carried in Roman triumph.
This funerary stele from the 3rd century is among the earliest Christian inscriptions, written in both Greek and Latin: the abbreviation D.M. at the top refers to the Di Manes, the traditional Roman spirits of the dead, but accompanies Christian fish symbolism.
The Pantheon in Rome, a Roman temple originally built under Augustus and later rebuilt under Hadrian in the 2nd century, dedicated to Rome's polytheistic religion before its conversion into a Catholic church in the 7th century

From the accession of Caesar Augustus as the first Roman emperor to the military anarchy of the 3rd century, it was a principate with Italy as the metropole of its provinces and the city of Rome as its sole capital.

Territories of the Roman civilization:

Ancient Rome

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Territories of the Roman civilization:
A fresco from Pompeii depicting the foundation of Rome. Sol riding in his chariot; Mars descending from the sky to Rhea Silvia lying in the grass; Mercury shows to Venus the she-wolf suckling the twins; in the lower corners of the picture: river-god Tiberinus and water-goddess Juturna. 35-45 CE
Territories of the Roman civilization:
According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus, who were raised by a she-wolf
Etruscan painting; dancer and musicians, Tomb of the Leopards, in Tarquinia, Italy
This bust from the Capitoline Museums is traditionally identified as a portrait of Lucius Junius Brutus, Roman bronze sculpture, 4th to late 3rd centuries BC
Italy (as defined by today's borders) in 400 BC.
One of the most famous Roman sieges was that of the Celtiberian stronghold of Numantia in present north-central Spain by Scipio Aemilianus in 133 BC
Roman bronze bust of an unknown man, traditionally identified as Scipio Africanus the Elder from the Naples National Archaeological Museum (Inv. No. 5634), dated to mid 1st century BC Excavated from the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum by Karl Jakob Weber, 1750–65
Gaius Marius, a Roman general and politician who dramatically reformed the Roman military
Portrait bust formerly identified as Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Landing of the Romans in Kent, 55 BC: Caesar with 100 ships and two legions made an opposed landing, probably near Deal. After pressing a little way inland against fierce opposition and losing ships in a storm, he retired back across the English Channel to Gaul from what was a reconnaissance in force, only to return the following year for a more serious invasion.
The Battle of Actium, by Laureys a Castro, painted 1672, National Maritime Museum, London
The Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century AD, depicting Augustus, the first Roman emperor
Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus. The yellow legend represents the extent of the Republic in 31 BC, the shades of green represent gradually conquered territories under the reign of Augustus, and pink areas on the map represent client states; areas under Roman control shown here were subject to change even during Augustus' reign, especially in Germania.
Bust of Vespasian, founder of the Flavian dynasty
The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan in AD 117
The Justice of Trajan (fragment) by Eugène Delacroix
Map showing the location of Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England
The Pantheon, Rome, built during the reign of Hadrian, which still contains the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world
The Severan Tondo, c. 199, Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla and Geta, whose face is erased
Bust of Caracalla from the Capitoline Museums, Rome
The Roman Empire suffered internal schisms, forming the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire
A Roman follis depicting the profile of Diocletian
The Aula Palatina of Trier, Germany (then part of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica), a Christian basilica built during the reign of Constantine I (r. 306–337 AD)
The Roman Forum, the political, economic, cultural, and religious center of the city during the Republic and later Empire
The Orator, c. 100 BC, an Etrusco-Roman bronze statue depicting Aule Metele (Latin: Aulus Metellus), an Etruscan man wearing a Roman toga while engaged in rhetoric; the statue features an inscription in the Etruscan language
Representation of a sitting of the Roman Senate: Cicero attacks Catilina, from a 19th-century fresco
Modern replica of lorica segmentata–type armor, worn in conjunction with the chainmail popular after the 1st century AD
Roman tower (reconstruction) at Limes – Taunus / Germany
Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus, c. 122 BC; the altar shows two Roman infantrymen equipped with long scuta and a cavalryman with his horse. All are shown wearing chain mail armour.
A Roman naval bireme depicted in a relief from the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia in Praeneste (Palastrina), which was built c. 120 BC; exhibited in the Pius-Clementine Museum (Museo Pio-Clementino) in the Vatican Museums.
Workers at a cloth-processing shop, in a painting from the fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii
View of Trajan's Market, built by Apollodorus of Damascus
A gold glass portrait of a family from Roman Egypt. The Greek inscription on the medallion may indicate either the name of the artist or the pater familias who is absent in the portrait.
The seven hills of Rome
Punishment of Ixion: in the center is Mercury holding the caduceus and on the right Juno sits on her throne. Behind her Iris stands and gestures. On the left is Vulcan (blond figure) standing behind the wheel, manning it, with Ixion already tied to it. Nephele sits at Mercury's feet; a Roman fresco from the eastern wall of the triclinium in the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Fourth Style (60–79 AD).
Frescoes from the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii, Italy, Roman artwork dated to the mid-1st century BC
Woman playing a kithara, from the Villa Boscoreale, 40–30 BC
A boy holding a platter of fruits and what may be a bucket of crabs, in a kitchen with fish and squid, on the June panel from a mosaic depicting the months (3rd century)
Mosaic of "Big Game" hunters, Sicily, 4th century AD
Gladiator combat was strictly a spectator sport. This mosaic shows combatants and referee, from the villa at Nennig, Germany, c. 2nd–3rd century AD.
The "bikini girls" mosaic, showing women playing sports, from the Villa Romana del Casale, Roman province of Sicilia (Sicily), 4th century AD
Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in c. 19 BC. It is a World Heritage Site.
The Appian Way (Via Appia), a road connecting the city of Rome to the southern parts of Italy, remains usable even today
A vomitorium at the Roman amphitheatre in Trier
Rome and Carthage possession changes during the Punic Wars
Carthaginian possessions
Roman possessions

In modern historiography, ancient Rome refers to Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. It encompasses the Roman Kingdom (753–509 BC), Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire.

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world

Catholic Church

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Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world
The first use of the term "Catholic Church" (literally meaning "universal church") was by the church father Saint Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Smyrnaeans (c. 110 AD). Ignatius of Antioch is also attributed the earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Χριστιανισμός) c. 100 AD. He died in Rome, with his relics located in the Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano.
This fresco (1481–82) by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine Chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.
The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, depicting the last supper of Jesus and his twelve apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Most apostles are buried in Rome, including Saint Peter.
Jesus' commission to Saint Peter
19th-century drawing by Henry William Brewer of Old Saint Peter's Basilica, originally built in 318 by Emperor Constantine
Chartres Cathedral, completed 1220
The Renaissance period was a golden age for Catholic art. Pictured: the Sistine Chapel ceiling painted by Michelangelo
Ruins of the Jesuit Reduction at São Miguel das Missões in Brazil
While, since the 1960s, Pope Pius XII has been accused of not having done enough to shelter Jews from the Holocaust, his defenders claim he secretly encouraged individual Catholic resistance groups, such as that led by priest Heinrich Maier. Maier helped the allies fight against the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners.
Members of the Canadian Royal 22e Regiment in audience with Pope Pius XII, following the Liberation of Rome in 1944 during World War II
Bishops listen during the Second Vatican Council
Pope John Paul II was credited as a major influence to the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism. Here with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his wife, Nancy, in 1982.
Francis is the 266th and current pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He was elected in the 2013 papal conclave.
C. 1210 manuscript version of the traditional Shield of the Trinity theological diagram
The Blessed Virgin Mary is highly regarded in the Catholic Church, proclaiming her as Mother of God, free from original sin and an intercessor.
Mass at the Grotto at Lourdes, France. The chalice is displayed to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine.
Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes Cathedral (1549), France
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonisation of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007
A Catholic believer prays in a church in Mexico
The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece triptych painting of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick) with oil being administered by a priest during last rites. Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1445.
Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination.
Wedding mass in the Philippines
Catholic religious objects – Holy Bible, crucifix and rosary
East Syrian Rite wedding crowning celebrated by a bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India, one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the pope and the Catholic Church.
Saint Teresa of Calcutta advocated for the sick, the poor and the needy by practicing the acts of corporal works of mercy.
Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling
Pope Paul VI issued Humanae vitae on 25 July 1968.

The administrative body of the Holy See, the Roman Curia, has its principal offices in Vatican City, a small enclave of the Italian city of Rome, of which the pope is head of state.

Papal States

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The Papal States (Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa, ; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the pope from 756 until 1870.

The Papal States (Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa, ; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the pope from 756 until 1870.

The Papal States in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars
The domain of the Papal States c. 1430
The Papal States in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars
The Quirinal Palace, papal residence and home to the civil offices of the Papal States from the Renaissance until their annexation
The Papal States in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars
Map of the Italian Peninsula in 1796, showing the Papal States before the Napoleonic wars changed the face of the peninsula.
Map of Italy in 1843, showing the Papal States.
Kingdom of Italy in 1870, showing the Papal States, before the Capture of Rome
Kingdom of Italy in 1871
Bond of the Papal States, issued 9 December 1818.
The Breach of Porta Pia, on the right, in 1870.
Papal Zouaves pose in 1869.
The Quirinal Palace, papal residence and home to the civil offices of the Papal States from the Renaissance until their annexation

At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia.

Lazio

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One of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.

One of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.

Relief map of Lazio
Panorama of the Aniene Valley
The Appian Way (Via Appia), a road connecting Ancient Rome to the southern parts of Italy, remains usable even today.
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Kiwifruit
Pecorino Romano Cheese
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Spaghetti alla carbonara
Bucatini all'amatriciana
Spaghetti alla Gricia
Fettuccine Alfredo
Guanciale
Carciofi alla Romana
Carciofolata
Cima di rapa
Romaine lettuce
Rigatoni con la pajata
Trippa alla romana
Lampredotto sandwich
Coda alla vaccinara
Abbacchio

The capital of Lazio is Rome, which is also the capital and largest city of Italy.

St. Peter's Basilica

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View from the Tiber on Ponte Sant'Angelo and the Basilica. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome.
St. Peter and the Apostles on the Facade of St. Peter's Basilica
Bishops at the Second Vatican Council in 1962
Crepuscular rays are seen in St. Peter's Basilica at certain times each day.
An early interpretation of the relative locations of the circus, and the medieval and current Basilicas of St. Peter.
One possible modern interpretation
Maarten van Heemskerck - Santa Maria della Febbre, Vatican Obelisk, Saint Peter's Basilica in construction (1532)
A conjectural view of the Old St. Peter's Basilica by H. W. Brewer, 1891
Bramante's plan
Raphael's plan
Michelangelo's plan
Bramante's dome
Sangallo's design
St. Peter's Basilica from Castel Sant'Angelo showing the dome rising behind Maderno's façade.
1506 medal by Cristoforo Foppa depicting Bramante's design, including the four flanking smaller domes
The engraving by Stefan du Pérac was published in 1569, five years after the death of Michelangelo
The dome was brought to completion by Giacomo della Porta and Fontana.
Architectural details of the central part looking upward into the dome
Michelangelo's plan extended with Maderno's nave and narthex
Maderno's façade, with the statues of Saint Peter (left) and Saint Paul (right) flanking the entrance stairs
The narthex
Maderno's nave, looking towards the chancel
The apse with St. Peter's Cathedra supported by four Doctors of the Church
The altar with Bernini's baldacchino
Bernini's Cathedra Petri and Gloria
St. Peter's Basilica and the piazza at night
One of the two fountains which form the axis of the piazza.
Evening aerial view of the piazza and facade
View of Rome from the Dome of St. Peter's Basilica
Air vents for the crypt in St. Peter's Basilica
Cardinals at Mass in Saint Peter's Basilica two days before a papal conclave, 16 April 2005.
The inauguration of Pope Francis in 2013
Silhouette of St. Peter's Basilica at sundown (view from Castel Sant'Angelo).
alt= A marble statue showing a matronly woman in a sweeping cloak supporting a cross which stands beside her and presenting a set of nails to the viewer with her left hand|Saint Helena
alt= This statue shows a Roman soldier, with a cloak furling around him, gazing upward while he supports a long spear with his right hand and throws out his other hand in amazement.|Saint Longinus
alt= This statue shows an elderly man, bare-chested, and draped, looking up despairingly as he supports a large cross, arranged diagonally.|Saint Andrew
alt= This statue shows the saint as a young woman, who, with a sweeping dramatic gesture, displays a cloth on which there is an image of the face of Jesus.|Saint Veronica
alt= A pair of bronze doors divided into sixteen panels containing reliefs depicting scenes mainly from the life of Jesus and stories that he told.|The Holy Door is opened only for great celebrations.
alt= A large memorial set in a niche. The marble figure of a kneeling pope is surrounded by allegoric marble figures, and sculptured drapery surfaced with patterned red stone.|The tomb of Alexander VII, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1671–1678.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/Docs/seminarians4.htm|website=saintpetersbasilica.org|title=The Seminarian GuidesNorth American College, Rome|access-date=29 July 2009}}</ref>
alt= Peter is shown as a bearded man in draped garment like a toga. He is seated on a chair made of marble, and has his right hand raised in a gesture of blessing while in his left hand he holds two large keys. Behind the statue, the wall is patterned in mosaic to resemble red and gold brocade cloth.|The bronze statue of Saint Peter holding the keys of heaven, attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio.
alt= This marble statue shows the Virgin Mary seated, mourning over the lifeless body of Jesus which is supported across her knees.|The Pietà by Michelangelo, 1498–1499, is in the north aisle.

The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican (Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply Saint Peter's Basilica (Basilica Sancti Petri), is a church built in the Renaissance style located in Vatican City, the papal enclave that is within the city of Rome, Italy.

Vatican City

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Vatican City
The Vatican obelisk, originally taken from Egypt by Caligula
Vatican City
An early interpretation of the relative locations of the circus, and the medieval and current Basilicas of St. Peter.
One possible modern interpretation
The Italian peninsula in 1796. The Papal States in central Italy are coloured purple.
Bands of the British army's 38th Brigade playing in front of St Peter's Basilica, June 1944
View of St. Peter's Square from the top of Michelangelo's dome
Map of Vatican City, highlighting notable buildings and the Vatican gardens
Territory of Vatican City State according to the Lateran Treaty
Pope Francis in Vatican City, 2021
The Apostolic Palace (Palazzo Apostolico), the official residence of the Pope. Here, Benedict XVI is at the window marked by a maroon banner hanging from the windowsill at centre
Palace of the Governorate of Vatican City State
A guard of the Vatican at his sentry box
Gendarmerie car
The crowds of tourists in St. Peter's Square are a target for pickpockets.
The Ingresso di Sant'Anna, an entrance to Vatican City from Italy
Vatican Museums' "New Wing", built by Raffaele Stern (1774–1820)
The Seal of Vatican City. Note the use of the Italian language
The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) display works from the extensive collection of the Catholic Church
The shortest national railway system in the world
The Vatican's post office was established on 11 February 1929

Vatican City, officially Vatican City State (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent city-state and enclave surrounded by Rome, Italy.

Naples

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Mount Echia, the place where the polis of Parthenope arose
The Columns of the Temple of Castor and Pollux incorporated into the facade of San Paolo Maggiore
A scene featuring the siren Parthenope, the mythological founder of Naples
The Gothic Battle of Mons Lactarius on Vesuvius, painted by Alexander Zick
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The Castel Nuovo, a.k.a. Maschio Angioino, a seat of medieval kings of Naples, Aragon and Spain
French troops and artillery entering Naples in 1495, during the Italian War of 1494–98
Onofrio Palumbo's portrait of the 17th-century revolutionary leader Masaniello
Departure of Charles III of Spain from Naples, 1759
Naples depicted during the ephemeral Parthenopean Republic
Entrance of Garibaldi into Naples on 7 September 1860
Allied bombardment of Naples, 1943
Royal Palace of Naples
The Egg Castle
National Archaeological Museum
National Museum of Capodimonte
Naples Cathedral
Church of Gesù Nuovo
Hanging gardens of the Certosa di San Martino
Interior of the Church of Girolamini
Inside Galleria Umberto I
Underground Naples
Villa Comunale
Aselmeyer Castle, built by Lamont Young in the Neo-Gothic style
One of the city's various examples of Liberty Napoletano
The Gulf of Naples
The Palazzo Donn'Anna and Bagno Donn'Anna beach in Posillipo
Urban density in central Naples
Main building of the University of Naples Federico II
Palazzo San Giacomo, the city hall
Palazzo delle Poste in Naples, Gino Franzi, 1936. The masterpiece of modernism, marble and diorite.
Directional center of Naples
The port of Naples
Naples International Airport
The square of Piazza Garibaldi at Napoli Centrale under renovation
Dante Station of the Naples Metro
A Romantic painting by Salvatore Fergola showing the 1839 inauguration of the Naples-Portici railway line
Neapolitan pizza. Pizza was invented in Naples.
Sfogliatelle, a popular Neapolitan pastry dish
An 1813 depiction of the Piedigrotta festival
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The interior of the Teatro San Carlo
Tarantella in Napoli, a 1903 postcard
Neapolitan mandolin
Totò, a famous Neapolitan actor
The Stadio San Paolo

Naples (Napoli ; Napule ) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest city of Italy, after Rome and Milan, with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of 2017.

Milan

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Roman ruins in Milan: the Columns of San Lorenzo
The remains of the Milan amphitheatre, which can be found inside the archaeological park of the Antiquarium in Milan
The biscione eating a child on the Visconti coat of arms
The Medieval Porta Ticinese (1100), is one of the three medieval gates of the city that still exist in the modern Milan.
The late 16th-century city encircled by the Spanish walls
Milan during the plague of 1630: plague carts carry the dead for burial.
Ceremonial reception of Russian Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov in Milan, April 1799
Popular print depicting the "Five Days" uprising against Austrian rule.
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II destroyed by Allied bombings, 1943
Piazza Castello during Expo 2015
Satellite picture of Milan
Navigli by night
Palazzo Marino, Milan City Hall
Giuseppe Sala, mayor since 2016
The city's nine boroughs
Palazzo Lombardia, headquarters of the regional government of Lombardy
Milan Cathedral is the largest Gothic cathedral in the world
Torre del Filarete of Sforza Castle (Castello Sforzesco), a historic medieval fortress.
The Royal Palace of Milan
Royal Villa of Milan, one of the finest examples of Neoclassical architecture in Lombardy
Art Deco Central railway station, the 8th busiest in Europe, opened in 1931
The Cimitero Monumentale, it is noted for the abundance of artistic tombs and monuments.
The Arch of the Peace, 1807
Sempione Park and the Arch of Peace
Santa Maria delle Grazie, 1497
St. Ambrose Basilica dates back from AD 379–386
The skyscrapers of Porta Nuova business district
Biblioteca Ambrosiana
Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper, together with the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Museo del Novecento displays the world's largest collection of Futurist art.
The Pinacoteca di Brera
The Triennale design and art museum
The San Carlo al Corso
Portrait
Founded in 1778, La Scala is the world's most famous opera house.
The Teatro dei Filodrammatici
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is one of the city's largest shopping centres.
Monument to Alessandro Manzoni
Risotto alla Milanese
Cotoletta alla Milanese
San Siro Stadium, home of A.C. Milan and Inter Milan, has a capacity of 80,000. It is Italy's biggest stadium.
Mediolanum Forum, home of Olimpia Milano
The Monza Formula One circuit is located near the city, inside a suburban park.
The University of Milan headquarters
Bocconi University is a leading institution for economics, management and related disciplines in Europe.
University of Milan Bicocca, the city's newest university, ranks as the 82nd best young college on over 300 institutions in the 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Sharen'go cars in Piazza Duca d'Aosta
Milan Metro is Italy's longest rapid transit system.
Milano Centrale railway station
Typical trams operated by ATM
Malpensa Airport

Milan (,, Lombard: ; Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome.