# Ronald Fisher

**FisherR.A. FisherR. A. FisherFisher, RonaldFisher, R.A.FisherianFisher, R. A.Sir Ronald A. FisherSir Ronald Aylmer FisherSir Ronald Fisher**

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was a British statistician and geneticist.wikipedia

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### Population genetics

**population geneticistpopulation geneticevolutionary genetics**

He is known as one of the three principal founders of population genetics. A core work of the neo-Darwinian modern evolutionary synthesis, it helped define population genetics, which Fisher founded alongside Sewall Wright and J. B. S. Haldane, and revived Darwins neglected idea of sexual selection.

Its primary founders were Sewall Wright, J. B. S. Haldane and Ronald Fisher, who also laid the foundations for the related discipline of quantitative genetics.

### Modern synthesis (20th century)

**modern synthesismodern evolutionary synthesisevolutionary synthesis**

In genetics, his work used mathematics to combine Mendelian genetics and natural selection; this contributed to the revival of Darwinism in the early 20th-century revision of the theory of evolution known as the modern synthesis. A core work of the neo-Darwinian modern evolutionary synthesis, it helped define population genetics, which Fisher founded alongside Sewall Wright and J. B. S. Haldane, and revived Darwins neglected idea of sexual selection.

An early event in the modern synthesis was R. A. Fisher's 1918 paper on mathematical population genetics, but William Bateson, and separately Udny Yule, were already starting to show how Mendelian genetics could work in evolution in 1902.

### Fisherian runaway

**runaway evolutionrunaway selectionFisher's runaway model**

He outlined Fisher's principle, the Fisherian runaway and sexy son hypothesis theories of sexual selection.

Fisherian runaway or runaway selection is a sexual selection mechanism proposed by the mathematical biologist Ronald Fisher in the early 20th century, to account for the evolution of exaggerated male ornamentation by persistent, directional female choice.

### Sexy son hypothesis

**good genesgood genes hypothesisgood genes theory**

He outlined Fisher's principle, the Fisherian runaway and sexy son hypothesis theories of sexual selection.

The sexy son hypothesis in evolutionary biology and sexual selection—proposed by Ronald Fisher in 1930—states that a female's ideal mate choice among potential mates is one whose genes will produce male offspring with the best chance of reproductive success.

### Sexual selection

**sexually selectedmale-male competitionsexual competition**

He outlined Fisher's principle, the Fisherian runaway and sexy son hypothesis theories of sexual selection. In 1915 he published a paper The evolution of sexual preference on sexual selection and mate choice. A core work of the neo-Darwinian modern evolutionary synthesis, it helped define population genetics, which Fisher founded alongside Sewall Wright and J. B. S. Haldane, and revived Darwins neglected idea of sexual selection.

The concept was first articulated by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace who described it as driving species adaptations and that many organisms had evolved features whose function was deleterious to their individual survival, and then developed by Ronald Fisher in the early 20th century.

### Biostatistics

**biostatisticianbiometrybiometrician**

He established his reputation there in the following years as a biostatistician.

Ronald Fisher developed several basic statistical methods in support of his work studying the crop experiments at Rothamsted Research, including in his books Statistical Methods for Research Workers (1925) end The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (1930). He gave many contributions to genetics and statistics. Some of them include the ANOVA, p-value concepts, Fisher's exact test and Fisher's equation for population dynamics. He is credited for the sentence “Natural selection is a mechanism for generating an exceedingly high degree of improbability”.

### Mate choice

**mate selectionfemale choicemate preference**

In 1915 he published a paper The evolution of sexual preference on sexual selection and mate choice.

Ideas on sexual selection were first introduced in 1871, by Charles Darwin, then expanded on by Ronald Fisher in 1915.

### Evolution

**evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary theory**

In genetics, his work used mathematics to combine Mendelian genetics and natural selection; this contributed to the revival of Darwinism in the early 20th-century revision of the theory of evolution known as the modern synthesis.

In the 1930s, pioneers in the field of population genetics, such as Ronald Fisher, Sewall Wright and J. B. S. Haldane set the foundations of evolution onto a robust statistical philosophy.

### Rothamsted Research

**Rothamsted Experimental StationRothamstedIACR Rothamsted**

From 1919 onward, he worked at the Rothamsted Experimental Station for 14 years; there, he analysed its immense data from crop experiments since the 1840s, and developed the analysis of variance (ANOVA).

In 1919 Russell hired Ronald Fisher to investigate the possibility of analysing the vast amount of data accumulated from the "Classical Field Experiments."

### Design of experiments

**experimental designdesigndesigned experiment**

His contributions to statistics include the maximum likelihood, fiducial inference, the derivation of various sampling distributions, founding principles of the design of experiments, and much more. In this book Fisher also outlined the Lady tasting tea, now a famous design of a statistical randomized experiment which uses Fisher's exact test and is the original exposition of Fisher's notion of a null hypothesis.

A methodology for designing experiments was proposed by Ronald Fisher, in his innovative books: The Arrangement of Field Experiments (1926) and The Design of Experiments (1935).

### The Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance

In 1918 he published "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance", in which he introduced the term variance and proposed its formal analysis.

"The Correlation between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance" is a scientific paper by Ronald Fisher which was published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1918, (volume 52, pages 399–433).

### Fiducial inference

**fiducialfiducial distributionfaith**

His contributions to statistics include the maximum likelihood, fiducial inference, the derivation of various sampling distributions, founding principles of the design of experiments, and much more.

The general approach of fiducial inference was proposed by Ronald Fisher.

### Fisher's principle

**Fisher's prediction of a 1:1 male to female sex ratioFisher's theoryFisher's theory of sex ratio selection**

He outlined Fisher's principle, the Fisherian runaway and sexy son hypothesis theories of sexual selection.

Fisher's principle was famously outlined by Ronald Fisher in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (but has been incorrectly attributed to Fisher as original ).

### Mendelian inheritance

**MendelianMendelian geneticslaws of inheritance**

In genetics, his work used mathematics to combine Mendelian genetics and natural selection; this contributed to the revival of Darwinism in the early 20th-century revision of the theory of evolution known as the modern synthesis.

Ronald Fisher combined these ideas with the theory of natural selection in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, putting evolution onto a mathematical footing and forming the basis for population genetics within the modern evolutionary synthesis.

### Analysis of variance

**ANOVAanalysis of variance (ANOVA)corrected the means**

From 1919 onward, he worked at the Rothamsted Experimental Station for 14 years; there, he analysed its immense data from crop experiments since the 1840s, and developed the analysis of variance (ANOVA).

ANOVA was developed by statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher.

### Eugenics

**eugenicisteugeniceugenicists**

Throughout his life, he was a prominent supporter of eugenics, an interest which led to his work on statistics and genetics.

Other biologists such as J. B. S. Haldane and R. A. Fisher expressed skepticism in the belief that sterilization of "defectives" would lead to the disappearance of undesirable genetic traits.

### The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection

In 1930, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection was first published by Clarendon Press and is dedicated to Leonard Darwin.

The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher which combines Mendelian genetics with Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, with Fisher being the first to argue that "Mendelism therefore validates Darwinism" and stating with regard to mutations that "The vast majority of large mutations are deleterious; small mutations are both far more frequent and more likely to be useful", thus refuting orthogenesis.

### Inverforth House

From 1896 until 1904 they lived at Inverforth House in London, where English Heritage installed a blue plaque in 2002, before moving to Streatham.

In 2002 English Heritage commemorated Viscount Leverhulme and geneticist and statistician Ronald Fisher, who lived there as a child from 1896 to 1904, with blue plaques.

### Statistical Methods for Research Workers

**intraclass correlationmethods**

In 1925 he published Statistical Methods for Research Workers, one of the 20th century's most influential books on statistical methods.

Statistical Methods for Research Workers is a classic book on statistics, written by the statistician R. A. Fisher.

### Natural selection

**selectionselectiveselected**

In genetics, his work used mathematics to combine Mendelian genetics and natural selection; this contributed to the revival of Darwinism in the early 20th-century revision of the theory of evolution known as the modern synthesis.

An alternate theory proposed by the same Ronald Fisher in 1930 is the sexy son hypothesis, that mothers want promiscuous sons to give them large numbers of grandchildren and so choose promiscuous fathers for their children.

### Sewall Wright

**WrightS. WrightWright, S.**

A core work of the neo-Darwinian modern evolutionary synthesis, it helped define population genetics, which Fisher founded alongside Sewall Wright and J. B. S. Haldane, and revived Darwins neglected idea of sexual selection.

He was a founder of population genetics alongside Ronald Fisher and J. B. S. Haldane, which was a major step in the development of the modern synthesis combining genetics with evolution.

### Leonard Darwin

**Leonard[Leonard] DarwinLeo**

In 1930, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection was first published by Clarendon Press and is dedicated to Leonard Darwin.

He was a son of naturalist Charles Darwin as well as mentor to Ronald Fisher, statistician and evolutionary biologist.

### Fisher's method

**correction according to the number of testsFisher's method of combining ''p''-values**

Fisher's method is a technique for data fusion or "meta-analysis" (analysis of analyses).

It was developed by and named for Ronald Fisher.

### Student's t-distribution

**Student's ''t''-distributiont''-distributiont-distribution**

Fisher's 1924 article On a distribution yielding the error functions of several well known statistics presented Pearson's chi-squared test and William Gosset's Student's t-distribution in the same framework as the Gaussian distribution and is where he developed Fisher's z-distribution a new statistical method, commonly used decades later as the F distribution.

It became well-known through the work of Ronald Fisher, who called the distribution "Student's distribution" and represented the test value with the letter t.

### Null hypothesis

**nullnull hypotheseshypotheses**

In this book Fisher also outlined the Lady tasting tea, now a famous design of a statistical randomized experiment which uses Fisher's exact test and is the original exposition of Fisher's notion of a null hypothesis.

In the significance testing approach of Ronald Fisher, a null hypothesis is rejected if the observed data are significantly unlikely to have occurred if the null hypothesis were true.