Root

adventitious rootsrootsplant rootsroot systemroot systemstree rootplant rootfine rootsroot zoneadventitious
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.wikipedia
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Rhizome

rhizomatousrhizomesbotanical rhizome
Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either (see rhizome).
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (, from "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean plant stem that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.

Mycorrhiza

mycorrhizalectomycorrhizalmycorrhizal fungi
The roots of most vascular plant species enter into symbiosis with certain fungi to form mycorrhizae, and a large range of other organisms including bacteria also closely associate with roots.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas ) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.

Fungus

fungifungalnecrotrophic
The roots of most vascular plant species enter into symbiosis with certain fungi to form mycorrhizae, and a large range of other organisms including bacteria also closely associate with roots.
To overcome this limitation, some fungi, such as Armillaria, form rhizomorphs, which resemble and perform functions similar to the roots of plants.

Epidermis (botany)

epidermisepidermalepidermal cells
When dissected, the arrangement of the cells in a root is root hair, epidermis, epiblem, cortex, endodermis, pericycle and, lastly, the vascular tissue in the centre of a root to transport the water absorbed by the root to other places of the plant.
The epidermis (from the Greek ἐπιδερμίς, meaning "over-skin") is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.

Bark (botany)

barktree barkperiderm
The former forms secondary xylem and secondary phloem, while the latter forms the periderm.
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.

Plant stem

stemstemsinternode
Therefore, the root is best defined as the non-leaf, non-nodes bearing parts of the plant's body.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.

Soil

dirtsoilssoil moisture
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
In the same way, plant roots penetrate soil horizons and open channels upon decomposition.

Root cap

root tipcaps of rootsroot tips
The meristem cells more or less continuously divide, producing more meristem, root cap cells (these are sacrificed to protect the meristem), and undifferentiated root cells.
The root cap is a type of tissue at the tip of a plant root.

Root hair

filamentsroot hairsroot hairs.
When dissected, the arrangement of the cells in a root is root hair, epidermis, epiblem, cortex, endodermis, pericycle and, lastly, the vascular tissue in the centre of a root to transport the water absorbed by the root to other places of the plant.
A root hair, or absorbent hair, the rhizoid of a vascular plant, is a tubular outgrowth of a trichoblast, a hair-forming cell on the epidermis of a plant root.

Plant

plantsfloraplant kingdom
The first root that comes from a plant is called the radicle.
The fossilized remains of conifer and angiosperm roots, stems and branches may be locally abundant in lake and inshore sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.

Cortex (botany)

cortexcorticalcortical cells
When dissected, the arrangement of the cells in a root is root hair, epidermis, epiblem, cortex, endodermis, pericycle and, lastly, the vascular tissue in the centre of a root to transport the water absorbed by the root to other places of the plant.
In botany, the cortex is the outermost layer of the stem or root of a plant, bounded on the outside by the epidermis and on the inside by the endodermis.

Radicle

embryonic root
The first root that comes from a plant is called the radicle.
The radicle is the embryonic root of the plant, and grows downward in the soil (the shoot emerges from the plumule).

Maple

Acermaple treemaple trees
Some families however, such as Sapindaceae (the maple family), show no correlation between root location and where the root supplies nutrients on the plant.
Many of the root systems are typically dense and fibrous, inhibiting the growth of other vegetation underneath them.

Cork cambium

cambiumcorkphellogen
Secondary growth occurs at the lateral meristems, namely the vascular cambium and cork cambium.
The cork cambium is a lateral meristem and is responsible for secondary growth that replaces the epidermis in roots and stems.

Lateral root

lateral rootslateralside roots
A true root system consists of a primary root and secondary roots (or lateral roots).
Lateral roots extend horizontally from the primary root (radicle) and serve to anchor the plant securely into the soil.

Vascular tissue

vascularvascular systemplant tissue
When dissected, the arrangement of the cells in a root is root hair, epidermis, epiblem, cortex, endodermis, pericycle and, lastly, the vascular tissue in the centre of a root to transport the water absorbed by the root to other places of the plant.
In stems and roots, the xylem typically lies closer to the interior of the stem with phloem towards the exterior of the stem.

Mangrove

mangrovesmangrove forestmangrove swamps
Aerating roots (or knee root or knee or pneumatophores or Cypress knee): roots rising above the ground, especially above water such as in some mangrove genera (Avicennia, Sonneratia). In some plants like Avicennia the erect roots have a large number of breathing pores for exchange of gases.
They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action.

Willow

willowssallowSalix
Adventitious roots arise out-of-sequence from the more usual root formation of branches of a primary root, and instead originate from the stem, branches, leaves, or old woody roots. They commonly occur in monocots and pteridophytes, but also in many dicots, such as clover (Trifolium), ivy (Hedera), strawberry (Fragaria) and willow (Salix). Most aerial roots and stilt roots are adventitious. In some conifers adventitious roots can form the largest part of the root system.
Willows all have abundant watery bark sap, which is heavily charged with salicylic acid, soft, usually pliant, tough wood, slender branches, and large, fibrous, often stoloniferous roots.

Cytokinin

cytokinins
In response to the concentration of nutrients, roots also synthesise cytokinin, which acts as a signal as to how fast the shoots can grow.
More cytokinin induces growth of shoot buds, while more auxin induces root formation.

Organ (anatomy)

organorgansviscera
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Vegetative plant organs are roots, stems, and leaves.

Gravitropism

geotropismgeotropicgravitropic
Gravitropism directs roots to grow downward at germination, the growth mechanism of plants that also causes the shoot to grow upward.
Charles Darwin was one of the first to scientifically document that roots show positive gravitropism and stems show negative gravitropism.

Taproot

tap roottaprootstap-root
Contractile roots: these pull bulbs or corms of monocots, such as hyacinth and lily, and some taproots, such as dandelion, deeper in the soil through expanding radially and contracting longitudinally. They have a wrinkled surface.
A taproot is a large, central, and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialeubacteria
The roots of most vascular plant species enter into symbiosis with certain fungi to form mycorrhizae, and a large range of other organisms including bacteria also closely associate with roots.
In soil, microorganisms that reside in the rhizosphere (a zone that includes the root surface and the soil that adheres to the root after gentle shaking) carry out nitrogen fixation, converting nitrogen gas to nitrogenous compounds.

Absorption of water

absorbabsorbingabsorption agent
1) absorption of water and inorganic nutrients;
Root

Cluster root

proteoid rootproteoid rootsproteoid
Proteoid roots or cluster roots: dense clusters of rootlets of limited growth that develop under low phosphate or low iron conditions in Proteaceae and some plants from the following families Betulaceae, Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Moraceae, Fabaceae and Myricaceae.
Cluster roots, also known as proteoid roots, are plant roots that form clusters of closely spaced short lateral rootlets.