Rose window

wheel windowrose windowsrosette windowrosettewheel windowsroseocular windowocularocular windowsrosettes
Rose window is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style that are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery.wikipedia
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Gothic architecture

GothicGothic styleLate Gothic
Rose window is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style that are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. In Italy, the use of circular motifs in various media was a feature of church facades, occurring on Early Christian, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque churches, a well-known example being those great circles in polychrome marble which complement the central circular window on Alberti’s Early Renaissance façade at Santa Maria Novella in Florence. The transition from the Romanesque style to the Gothic was not clear cut, even at the Abbey of St Denis, to the north of Paris, where the Abbot Suger, between 1130 and 1144, gathered the various newly emerging features of Gothic into a single building, thereby “creating” the Gothic style.
Another important feature was the extensive use of stained glass, and the rose window, to bring light and color to the interior.

Tracery

traceriedplate tracerytraceries
Rose window is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style that are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery.
The rose windows of early- and high-Gothic cathedrals, such as the example in the north transept of Laon Cathedral (1170's) or the west facade at Chartres (c.

Lincoln Cathedral

LincolnCathedralCathedral of Lincoln
Medieval rose windows occur at the cathedrals of York, Lincoln, Canterbury, Durham and Oxford.
The two large stained glass rose windows, the matching Dean's Eye and Bishop's Eye, were added to the cathedral during the late Middle Ages.

Stained glass

stained-glassstained glass windowstained glass windows
It is designed in the Gothic Revival style and made from more than 10,000 pieces of stained glass.
The circular form, or rose window, developed in France from relatively simple windows with openings pierced through slabs of thin stone to wheel windows, as exemplified by the west front of Chartres Cathedral, and ultimately to designs of enormous complexity, the tracery being drafted from hundreds of different points, such as those at Sainte-Chapelle, Paris and the "Bishop's Eye" at Lincoln Cathedral.

Amiens Cathedral

AmiensCathedral of AmiensCathedral of Notre-Dame in Amiens
Examples can be seen at Notre Dame, Paris (see left), the Basilica of Saint Denis (see left), Chartres Cathedral (see above), Reims Cathedral, Amiens Cathedral and Strasbourg Cathedral (see introductory pictures.)
The west front of the cathedral, built in a single campaign from 1220 to 1236, shows an unusual degree of artistic unity: its lower tier with three vast deep porches is capped with the gallery of twenty-two over lifesize kings, which stretches across the entire façade beneath the rose window.

Třebíč

TrebitschTrebicTřebíč, Czechoslovakia
In Trebic, Czech Republic, is the 12th- and 13th-century Romanesque style Basilica of St Procopius with apsidal windows similar to those at Worms, but in this case the openings are filled with tracery of a Gothic form, clearly marking the transition to a new style.
The historical treasury of Třebíč includes the old Jewish Quarter and the large Romanesque St Procopius' Basilica, which incorporates some later Gothic features, including a rare example of a ten-part (also known as 'botanical') rose window.

Laon Cathedral

Notre-Dame of LaonLaonCathedral of Laon
Following the west window of Chartres, more daring Gothic windows were created at the Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame in Mantes and in the dynamically sculptural facade of Laon Cathedral (which also, unusually, has a rose window in its eastern end as well as in it transept ends).
Each end of the church culminates in a rose window, except for the southern transept.

Romanesque architecture

RomanesqueRomanesque styleLate Romanesque
Small circular windows such as that at S. Agnese and Torcello as well as unglazed decorative circular recesses continued to be used in churches in Italy, gaining increasing popularity in the later Romanesque period. In Italy, the use of circular motifs in various media was a feature of church facades, occurring on Early Christian, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque churches, a well-known example being those great circles in polychrome marble which complement the central circular window on Alberti’s Early Renaissance façade at Santa Maria Novella in Florence.
Later Romanesque churches may have wheel windows or rose windows with plate tracery.

Notre-Dame de Paris

Notre Dame de ParisNotre DameNotre Dame Cathedral
Examples can be seen at Notre Dame, Paris (see left), the Basilica of Saint Denis (see left), Chartres Cathedral (see above), Reims Cathedral, Amiens Cathedral and Strasbourg Cathedral (see introductory pictures.) The window that is central to the well-known Gothic façade of Notre Dame, Paris, is of more distinctly Gothic appearance, with mullions in two bands radiating from a central roundel, each terminating in pointed arches.
Its pioneering use of the rib vault and flying buttress, its enormous and colourful rose windows, as well as the naturalism and abundance of its sculptural decoration set it apart from the earlier Romanesque style.

Window

fenestrationlightsclerestory window
Rose window is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style that are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery.

Worms Cathedral

WormsWormser DomCathedral of St. Peter
In Germany, Worms Cathedral, has wheel windows in the pedimental ends of its nave and gables, very similar to the Early Christian Basilica of S. Agnese in Rome.
The sharply bent dosseret over the central rosette window was not rebuilt since it was blamed for the structural issues.

York Minster

YorkYork CathedralSt Peter
Medieval rose windows occur at the cathedrals of York, Lincoln, Canterbury, Durham and Oxford.
The south transept contains a rose window, while the West Window contains a heart-shaped design colloquially known as The Heart of Yorkshire.

San Miguel de Lillo

church of San Miguel de Lillo
In another of these churches, San Miguel de Lillo, is the earliest known example of an axially placed oculus with tracery.

Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford

Christ Church CathedralChrist ChurchOxford Cathedral
Medieval rose windows occur at the cathedrals of York, Lincoln, Canterbury, Durham and Oxford.
There are architectural features ranging from Norman to the Perpendicular style and a large rose window of the ten-part (i.e. botanical) type.

Verona

Verona, ItalyVeroneseSan Michele Extra
As the windows increased in size in the later Romanesque period, wheel windows became a standard feature of which there are fine examples at San Zeno Maggiore, Verona and Monza Cathedral.

Leon Battista Alberti

AlbertiLeone Battista AlbertiAlbertian
In Italy, the use of circular motifs in various media was a feature of church facades, occurring on Early Christian, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque churches, a well-known example being those great circles in polychrome marble which complement the central circular window on Alberti’s Early Renaissance façade at Santa Maria Novella in Florence.
The design also incorporates an ocular window which was already in place.

Pavia

Pavia, Italycomune di Paviahistory
Romanesque facades with oculi include San Miniato al Monte, Florence, 11th century, San Michele, Pavia, c. 1117, and Pistoia Cathedral, 1150.

Old St Paul's Cathedral

St Paul's CathedralSt PaulOld St. Paul's Cathedral
In England, the use of the rose window was commonly confined to the transepts although roses of great span were constructed in the west front of Byland Abbey and in the east front of Old St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
The cathedral's stained glass was reputed to be the best in the country, and the east-end Rose window was particularly exquisite.

Transept

transeptsNorth Transeptsemitransept
The next important development in its use for the Gothic style was to put it under a pointed arch, as was done in the Notre-Dame de Reims (after 1241), in the transepts as well as in the later roses of the facade.
The north and south end walls often hold decorated windows of stained glass, such as rose windows, in stone tracery.

Durham Cathedral

DurhamCathedralDean and Chapter of Durham
Medieval rose windows occur at the cathedrals of York, Lincoln, Canterbury, Durham and Oxford.
It is the work of Clayton and Bell, who were also responsible for the Te Deum window in the South Transept (1869), the Four Doctors window in the North Transept (1875), and the Rose Window of Christ in Majesty (c.

Basilica of Saint-Denis

Basilica of St DenisSaint Denis BasilicaAbbey of Saint-Denis
Examples can be seen at Notre Dame, Paris (see left), the Basilica of Saint Denis (see left), Chartres Cathedral (see above), Reims Cathedral, Amiens Cathedral and Strasbourg Cathedral (see introductory pictures.) The transition from the Romanesque style to the Gothic was not clear cut, even at the Abbey of St Denis, to the north of Paris, where the Abbot Suger, between 1130 and 1144, gathered the various newly emerging features of Gothic into a single building, thereby “creating” the Gothic style.
The rose window at the centre of the upper story of the west portal was also innovative and influential.

Chartres Cathedral

Cathedral of ChartresChartrescathedral
Examples can be seen at Notre Dame, Paris (see left), the Basilica of Saint Denis (see left), Chartres Cathedral (see above), Reims Cathedral, Amiens Cathedral and Strasbourg Cathedral (see introductory pictures.) Along with the simple wheel windows of the late Norman period in England, Germany and Italy, a large late 12th-century window still exists at Chartres Cathedral.
The cathedral has three large rose windows.

Eugène Viollet-le-Duc

Viollet-le-DucEugene Viollet-le-DucEugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
It no longer has its original form, but a mid-19th-century drawing by the restorer Viollet-le-Duc indicates that it had a very large ocular space at the centre, the glass supported by an iron hoop, and surrounded by simple semicircular cusped lobes cut out of flat stone in a technique known as "plate tracery".
When he modified the choir, he also constructed new bays with small gothic rose windows modelled on those in the church of Chars, in the Oise Valley.

St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney

St Mary's CathedralSt. Mary's CathedralSt. Mary's Cathedral, Sydney
A number of Australia's cathedrals have Gothic Revival rose windows including three by William Wardell at St Mary's Cathedral, Sydney and another at St Patrick's Cathedral, Melbourne which form the upper part of a very large seven-light window in the west end.
There are two more large rose windows, one in each of the transepts.

Suger

Abbot SugerAbbe SugerAbbé Suger
The transition from the Romanesque style to the Gothic was not clear cut, even at the Abbey of St Denis, to the north of Paris, where the Abbot Suger, between 1130 and 1144, gathered the various newly emerging features of Gothic into a single building, thereby “creating” the Gothic style.
The rose window above the West portal is the earliest-known such example, although Romanesque circular windows preceded it in general form.