Rosetta (spacecraft)

RosettaRosetta missionRosetta spacecraftRosetta'' missionRosetta space probeRosetta'' spacecraftRosetta probe2007 VN 84 ALICE spectrographRosetta'' comet mission
Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.wikipedia
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Philae (spacecraft)

PhilaePhilae spacecraftPhilae lander
Along with Philae, its lander module, Rosetta performed a detailed study of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P).
Philae ( or ) is a robotic European Space Agency lander that accompanied the Rosetta spacecraft until it separated to land on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, ten years and eight months after departing Earth.

Comet

cometslong-period cometJupiter-family comet
Along with Philae, its lander module, Rosetta performed a detailed study of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P).
Comets have been visited by unmanned probes such as the European Space Agency's Rosetta, which became the first to land a robotic spacecraft on a comet, and NASA's Deep Impact, which blasted a crater on Comet Tempel 1 to study its interior.

67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenkocomet 67PChuryumov–Gerasimenko
Along with Philae, its lander module, Rosetta performed a detailed study of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P).
Churyumov–Gerasimenko was the destination of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission, launched on 2 March 2004.

2867 Šteins

Šteins2867 Steins
During its journey to the comet, the spacecraft flew three times by Earth, by Mars, and the asteroids 21 Lutetia and 2867 Šteins.
In September 2008, ESA's Rosetta probe flew by Šteins, making it one of few minor planets ever visited by a spacecraft.

List of European Space Agency programs and missions

Horizon 2000List of projects of the European Space AgencyHorizon 2000+
(Previous missions had conducted successful flybys of seven other comets.) It was one of ESA's Horizon 2000 cornerstone missions.
It succeeds the Horizon 2000 and Horizon 2000+ programmes which launched notable missions such as Huygens, Rosetta and Gaia.

21 Lutetia

Lutetia
During its journey to the comet, the spacecraft flew three times by Earth, by Mars, and the asteroids 21 Lutetia and 2867 Šteins.
The Rosetta probe passed within 3,162 km of Lutetia in July 2010.

Ariane 5

Ariane 5 ECAAriane 5ECAAriane 5G
Rosetta was launched on 2 March 2004 from the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana on an Ariane 5 rocket and reached Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 7 May 2014.
After this failure, Arianespace SA delayed the expected January 2003 launch for the Rosetta mission to 26 February 2004, but this was again delayed to early March 2004 due to a minor fault in the foam that protects the cryogenic tanks on the Ariane 5.

Comet nucleus

nucleuscomet nucleicometary nucleus
Rosetta Philae lander successfully made the first soft landing on a comet nucleus when it touched down on Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014.
Results from the Rosetta and Philae spacecraft show that the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko has no magnetic field, which suggests that magnetism may not have played a role in the early formation of planetesimals.

Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby

CRAFComet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby
The NASA project was the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission.
Most of CRAF's scientific objectives were later accomplished by the smaller NASA spacecraft Stardust and Deep Impact, and by ESA's flagship Rosetta mission.

Mars Express

Mars Express OrbiterOMEGAASPERA-3
Spacecraft power was controlled by a redundant Terma power module also used in the Mars Express spacecraft, and was stored in four 10-A·h NiCd batteries supplying 28 volts to the bus.
The design of Mars Express is based on ESA's Rosetta mission, on which a considerable sum was spent on development.

Gerhard Schwehm

After the spacecraft launch, Gerhard Schwehm was named mission manager; he retired in March 2014.
He was Mission Manager for the Rosetta mission until his retirement.

Hibernation (spacecraft)

hibernation mode
Later, on 20 January 2014, Rosetta was taken out of a 31-month hibernation mode as it approached Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

Space probe

probespace probesprobes
Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.
The Rosetta space probe flew by two asteroids and made a rendezvous and orbited comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014.

European Space Astronomy Centre

ESACESA ESDCESA/ESAC
The planning for the operation of the scientific payload, together with the data retrieval, calibration, archiving and distribution, was performed from the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), in Villanueva de la Cañada, near Madrid, Spain.
Past and present missions represented at ESAC include (in alphabetical order) Akari, BepiColombo, Cassini–Huygens, Cluster, Exomars, Gaia, Herschel, Hubble, ISO, INTEGRAL, IUE, LISA Pathfinder, Mars Express, Planck, Rosetta, SOHO, Venus Express, and XMM-Newton.

46P/Wirtanen

Comet WirtanenWirtanen
Rosetta was set to be launched on 12 January 2003 to rendezvous with the comet 46P/Wirtanen in 2011.
It was the original target for close investigation by the Rosetta spacecraft, planned by the European Space Agency, but an inability to meet the launch window caused Rosetta to be sent to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko instead.

Klim Churyumov

Klim Ivanovych ChuryumovK. Churyumov
Both co-discoverers of the comet, Klim Churyumov and Svetlana Gerasimenko, were present at the spaceport during the launch.
In 1969 he discovered, with Svetlana Gerasimenko, the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko; on 12 November 2014 the Rosetta space mission landed its Philae spacecraft on its surface.

Deuterium

deuterondeuteronsD
That is, the ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in the water from the comet was determined to be three times that found for terrestrial water.
The deuterium/protium ratio of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as measured by the Rosetta space probe, is about three times that of earth water.

Alice (spacecraft instrument)

Alice
Alice is an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer for spacecraft, with one used on the New Horizons spacecraft, and another on the Rosetta spacecraft.

Terma A/S

TermaTerma Electronic
Spacecraft power was controlled by a redundant Terma power module also used in the Mars Express spacecraft, and was stored in four 10-A·h NiCd batteries supplying 28 volts to the bus.
Terma delivers power conditioning systems to a series of major space products, including ESA's BepiColombo and Rosetta.

Mariner Mark II

Both missions were to share the Mariner Mark II spacecraft design, thus minimising costs.
Other planned Mariner Mark II-based spacecraft were an ESA led follow-on to CRAF, the Comet Nucleus Sample Return or CNSR (later Rosetta, without the sample return); Pluto Fast Flyby, a flyby of Pluto (later Pluto Kuiper Express, eventually realized as New Horizons); and a Neptune Orbiter with an atmospheric probe.

Asteroid

asteroidsminor bodyMinor Planet
During its journey to the comet, the spacecraft flew three times by Earth, by Mars, and the asteroids 21 Lutetia and 2867 Šteins.
The European Rosetta probe (launched in 2004) flew by 2867 Šteins in 2008 and 21 Lutetia, the third-largest asteroid visited to date, in 2010.

List of missions to comets

Previous missions
(Previous missions had conducted successful flybys of seven other comets.) It was one of ESA's Horizon 2000 cornerstone missions.

Venus Express

Venus Express spacecraftVenus Express'' (VEX)
The Venus Express mission also uses some spare instruments developed for the Rosetta spacecraft.

Gravity assist

gravitational slingshotgravitational assistslingshot
In 2007, Rosetta made a Mars gravity assist (flyby) on its way to Comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko.
The Rosetta probe, launched in March 2004, used four gravity assist maneuvers (including one just 250 km from the surface of Mars) to accelerate throughout the inner Solar System.

Philae obelisk

The lander was named after the Philae obelisk, which bears a bilingual Greek and Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription.
The obelisk, in keeping with its bilingual nature and the "translation" metaphor of the Rosetta space mission, gives its name to the mission Philae robotic lander, which arrived at the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko on 6 August 2014 and landed on 12 November 2014.