Rotavirus

rotavirirotovirusrotavirus infections
Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae.wikipedia
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Double-stranded RNA viruses

double-stranded RNA virusdouble-stranded RNAdsRNA
Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae.
Members of this group include the rotaviruses, known globally as a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, and bluetongue virus, an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep.

Ruth Bishop

Dr. Ruth BishopProfessor Ruth Frances BishopRuth F. Bishop
Although Rotavirus was discovered in 1973 by Ruth Bishop and her colleagues by electron micrograph images and accounts for approximately one third of hospitalisations for severe diarrhoea in infants and children, its importance has historically been underestimated within the public health community, particularly in developing countries.
Ruth Frances Bishop (born 12 May 1933) is an Australian virologist, who was a leading member of the team that discovered the human rotavirus.

Gastroenteritis

stomach flucholera morbusinfectious diarrhea
It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis (which is often called "stomach flu" despite having no relation to influenza).
In children, rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease.

Rotavirus vaccine

Rotavirusrotavirus vaccinationrotaviral vaccines
In the United States, before initiation of the rotavirus vaccination programme in the 2000s, rotavirus caused about 2.7 million cases of severe gastroenteritis in children, almost 60,000 hospitalisations, and around 37 deaths each year.
Rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea among young children.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
There are six viral proteins (VPs) that form the virus particle (virion).
Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body in food or water.

NSP1 (rotavirus)

NSP1
These are called NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, NSP5 and NSP6.
NSP1, the product of rotavirus gene 5, is an nonstructural RNA-binding protein that contains a cysteine-rich region and is a component of early replication intermediates.

NSP3 (rotavirus)

NSP3
These are called NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, NSP5 and NSP6.
Rotavirus protein NSP3 (NS34) is bound to the 3' end consensus sequence of viral mRNAs in infected cells.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Rotaviruses are the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.
Acute diarrhea is most commonly due to viral gastroenteritis with rotavirus, which accounts for 40% of cases in children under five.

NSP2 (rotavirus)

NSP2
These are called NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, NSP5 and NSP6.
NSP2, is a rotavirus nonstructural RNA-binding protein that accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions (viroplasms) and is required for genome replication.

NSP6 (rotavirus)

NSP6
These are called NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, NSP5 and NSP6.
Gene 11 of Rotavirus encodes a nonstructural protein, NSP5 and also encodes NSP6, from an out of phase open reading frame.

NSP4 (rotavirus)

NSP4
These are called NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, NSP5 and NSP6.
The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 was the first viral enterotoxin discovered.

Viroplasm

virus factoriesviral factoriesviroplasms
NSP2 is an RNA-binding protein that accumulates in cytoplasmic inclusions (viroplasms) and is required for genome replication.
Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus.

Small intestine

small bowelsmall intestinessmall
It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis (which is often called "stomach flu" despite having no relation to influenza).
Rotavirus

Fecal–oral route

fecal-oral routefecal-oralfaecal-oral route
The virus is transmitted by the faecal-oral route.
Rotavirus – Most of these pathogens cause gastroenteritis.

NSP5 (rotavirus)

NSP5
These are called NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, NSP5 and NSP6.
NSP5 (nonstructural protein 5) encoded by genome segment 11 of group A rotaviruses.

Capsid

nucleocapsidviral capsidcoat protein
The RNA is surrounded by a three-layered icosahedral protein capsid.
Members of the double-stranded RNA virus lineage, including reovirus, rotavirus and bacteriophage φ6 have capsids built of 120 copies of capsid protein, corresponding to a "T=2" capsid, or arguably a T=1 capsid with a dimer in the asymmetric unit.

Enterocyte

enterocytescellsintestinal cells
It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis (which is often called "stomach flu" despite having no relation to influenza).
Rotavirus selectively invades and kills mature enterocytes in the small intestine.

Poly(A)-binding protein

PABPpoly (A)poly-A
First, NSP3 ejects poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) from the translation initiation factor eIF4F.
Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A) binding protein from eIF4F.

Viroporin

The elevated concentrations of calcium ions in the cytosol (which are required for the assembly of the progeny viruses) is achieved by NSP4 acting as a viroporin.
Likely exceptions to this scheme exist, such as the rotavirus protein non-structural protein 4.

Enterotoxin

enterotoxinsstaphylococcal enterotoxinenterotoxic
NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin that induces diarrhoea and was the first viral enterotoxin discovered.
* Rotavirus (NSP4)

PATH (global health organization)

PATHOneWorld Health(PATH)
To make rotavirus vaccines available, accessible, and affordable in all countries—particularly low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Asia where the majority of rotavirus deaths occur, PATH (formerly Program for Appropriate Technology in Health), the WHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Gavi have partnered with research institutions and governments to generate and disseminate evidence, lower prices, and accelerate introduction.
PATH is working with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to support the development of vaccines for diseases such as meningitis and pneumonia and to help countries introduce vaccines for childhood illnesses such as rotavirus and Japanese encephalitis.

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assayenzyme immunoassayenzyme linked immunosorbent assay
Specific diagnosis of infection with rotavirus A is made by finding the virus in the child's stool by enzyme immunoassay.
detection of rotavirus in feces

Thomas Henry Flewett

Tom Flewett
In 1974, Thomas Henry Flewett suggested the name rotavirus after observing that, when viewed through an electron microscope, a rotavirus particle looks like a wheel (rota in Latin) the name was officially recognised by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses four years later.
Flewett named one of the then most frequent causes of death in infants in tropical countries, rotaviruses.

Probiotic

probioticsVSL#3beneficial
Probiotics have been shown to reduce the duration of rotavirus diarrhoea, and according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology "effective interventions include administration of specific probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Saccharomyces boulardii, diosmectite or racecadotril."
LAB products might aid in the treatment of acute diarrhea, and possibly affect rotavirus infections in children and travelers' diarrhea in adults, but no products are approved for such indications.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus

L. rhamnosusL. rhamnosus GGLactobacillus rhamnosus GG
Probiotics have been shown to reduce the duration of rotavirus diarrhoea, and according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology "effective interventions include administration of specific probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Saccharomyces boulardii, diosmectite or racecadotril."
L. rhamnosus GG is beneficial in the prevention of rotavirus diarrhea in children.