Rotor machine

rotor cipher machinerotorrotor cipher machineswired rotorcipher machinerotor cipherrotor-basedrotorscipher machinesEnigma's rotors
In cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical stream cipher device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages.wikipedia
142 Related Articles

Enigma machine

EnigmaEnigma cipher machineEnigma code
The most famous example is the German Enigma machine, whose messages were deciphered by the Allies during World War II, producing intelligence code-named Ultra.
The Enigma machines are a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines, mainly developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.

Ultra

Ultra secret ULTRA Special Liaison Unit
The most famous example is the German Enigma machine, whose messages were deciphered by the Allies during World War II, producing intelligence code-named Ultra.
"Enigma" refers to a family of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines.

Edward Hebern

Edward Hugh HebernHebern, Edward
Previously, the invention had been ascribed to four inventors working independently and at much the same time: Edward Hebern, Arvid Damm, Hugo Koch and Arthur Scherbius.
Edward Hugh Hebern (April 23, 1869 – February 10, 1952) was an early inventor of rotor machines, devices for encryption.

Frequency analysis

frequenciesfrequency analysis (cryptanalysis)frequency analyzed
Monoalphabetic substitution ciphers used only a single replacement scheme — sometimes termed an "alphabet"; this could be easily broken, for example, by using frequency analysis.
The rotor machines of the first half of the 20th century (for example, the Enigma machine) were essentially immune to straightforward frequency analysis.

Cryptanalysis of the Enigma

EnigmaEnigma decryptsAbwehr Enigma
(See Cryptanalysis of the Enigma.)
The Enigma machines were a family of portable cipher machines with rotor scramblers.

Substitution cipher

substitutionmonoalphabetic substitution ciphersubstitution ciphers
The wiring between the contacts implements a fixed substitution of letters, replacing them in some complex fashion.
Several inventors had similar ideas about the same time, and rotor cipher machines were patented four times in 1919.

Encryption

encryptedencryptencrypting
In cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical stream cipher device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages.
Rotor cipher machines

Arvid Gerhard Damm

Arvid Damm
Previously, the invention had been ascribed to four inventors working independently and at much the same time: Edward Hebern, Arvid Damm, Hugo Koch and Arthur Scherbius.
He designed a number of cipher machines, and was one of the early inventors of the wired rotor principle for machine encipherment.

William F. Friedman

WilliamWilliam FriedmanFriedman
Charles Babbage, Friedrich Kasiski, and William F. Friedman are among those who did most to develop these techniques.
Friedman realized that the new rotor machines would be important, and devoted some time to analysing Hebern's design.

Hugo Koch

Previously, the invention had been ascribed to four inventors working independently and at much the same time: Edward Hebern, Arvid Damm, Hugo Koch and Arthur Scherbius.
Hugo Alexander Koch (9 March 1870, Delft – 3 March 1928, Düsseldorf) was a Dutch inventor who conceived of and patented an idea for machine encryption — the rotor machine, although he was not the first to do so. He is sometimes erroneously credited as the originator of the Enigma machine, although this has been shown to be the work of German engineer Arthur Scherbius.

Typex

Type XType X machine
The Allies developed the Typex (British) and the SIGABA (American).
Like Enigma, Typex was a rotor machine.

KL-7

The KL-7 (ADONIS), an encryption machine with 8 rotors, was widely used by the U.S. and its allies from the 1950s until the 1980s.
The TSEC/KL-7 (also known as high-level NSA secret military codename Adonis) was an off-line non-reciprocal rotor encryption machine.

SIGABA

The Allies developed the Typex (British) and the SIGABA (American).
Like many machines of the era it used an electromechanical system of rotors in order to encipher messages, but with a number of security improvements over previous designs.

Arthur Scherbius

Scherbius
Previously, the invention had been ascribed to four inventors working independently and at much the same time: Edward Hebern, Arvid Damm, Hugo Koch and Arthur Scherbius.
Scherbius applied for a patent (filed 23 February 1918) for a cipher machine based on rotating wired wheels, what is now known as a rotor machine.

Cryptography

cryptographiccryptographercryptology
In cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical stream cipher device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages.
Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World War I and the advent of computers in World War II, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread.

Fialka

The Soviet Union and its allies used a 10-rotor machine called Fialka well into the 1970s.
A rotor machine, the device uses 10 rotors, each with 30 contacts along with mechanical pins to control stepping.

Lorenz cipher

TunnyLorenzLorenz SZ 40/42
The Germans used the Lorenz SZ 40/42 and Siemens and Halske T52 machines to encipher teleprinter traffic which used the Baudot code; this traffic was known as Fish to the Allies.
The Lorenz SZ40, SZ42a and SZ42b were German rotor stream cipher machines used by the German Army during World War II.

Battle of the Atlantic

AtlanticAtlantic convoysAtlantic campaign
The British continued breaking Enigma and, assisted eventually by the United States, extended the work to German Naval Enigma traffic (which the Poles had been reading before the war), most especially to and from U-boats during the Battle of the Atlantic.
This was thought to be safe as the radio messages were encrypted using the Enigma cipher machine, which the Germans considered unbreakable.

Lacida

Lacida MachineLCD
Lacida
The Lacida (or LCD) was a Polish rotor cipher machine.

Hebern rotor machine

Hebern machineHebern's rotor machine
He became convinced he would get rich selling such a system to the military, the Hebern Rotor Machine, and produced a series of different machines with one to five rotors.
It is the first example (though just barely) of a class of machines known as rotor machines that would become the primary form of encryption during World War II and for some time after, and which included such famous examples as the German Enigma.

SIGCUM

SIGCUM
SIGCUM, also known as Converter M-228, was a rotor cipher machine used to encrypt teleprinter traffic by the United States Army.

NEMA (machine)

NEMA
During the War the Swiss began development on an Enigma improvement which became the NEMA machine which was put into service after World War II. There was even a Japanese developed variant of the Enigma in which the rotors sat horizontally; it was apparently never put into service.
In the history of cryptography, the NEMA (NEue MAschine) ("new machine"), also designated the T-D (Tasten-Druecker-Maschine) ("key-stroke machine"), was a 10-wheel rotor machine designed by the Swiss Army during World War II as a replacement for their Enigma machines.

Mercury (cipher machine)

Mercury
Mercury
Mercury was an online rotor machine descended from Typex, but modified to achieve a longer cycle length using a so-called double-drum basket system.

OMI cryptograph

OMI cryptograph
The OMI cryptograph was a rotor cipher machine produced and sold by Italian firm Ottico Meccanica Italiana (OMI) in Rome.

HX-63

HX-63
The HX-63 was an advanced rotor machine designed by Crypto AG, who started the design in 1952.