Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt in his Rough Riders uniform on October 26, 1898, by Rockwood.
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
Troops arriving in Tampa
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
Rough Riders heading to Cuba aboard the steamship Yucatan.
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
"The Battle of Las Guasimas, June 24 - The heroic stand of the 'Rough Riders'" in Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain.
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
US Army encampment, 1st Volunteer Cavalry, Rough Riders, at the base of Kettle Hill about July 5, 1898. San Juan Hill and block houses are in background.
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
US Army photo taken near the base of Kettle Hill about July 4, 1898. The soldier is pointing up to the top of Kettle Hill. In the background are the block houses on San Juan Hill and the American encampment.
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
The Fight for Santiago. The "Rough Riders" charging up the San Juan Hill, July 1, and driving the Spanish from their intrenchments [sic]. Illustration from McClure's, October 1898
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
Original title: "Colonel Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at the top of the hill which they captured, Battle of San Juan Hill." US Army victors on Kettle Hill about July 3, 1898 after the battle of "San Juan Hill(s)." Left to right is 3rd US Cavalry, 1st Volunteer Cavalry (Col. Theodore Roosevelt center) and 10th US Cavalry. A second similar picture is often shown cropping out all but the 1st Vol Cav and TR.
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
US Postage Stamp, 1948 issue, commemorating 50th anniversary of Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders.
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Ticket for a 1906 fund-raising event to help finance a monument for the Rough Riders erected later in 1906
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World, c. undefined1898
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
William H. West's Big Minstrel Jubilee: The Charge of San Juan Hill
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

Wood's second in command was former Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt, a strong advocate for the Cuban War of Independence.

- Rough Riders

He served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley and in 1898 helped plan the highly successful naval war against Spain. He resigned to help form and lead the Rough Riders, a unit that fought the Spanish army in Cuba to great publicity.

- Theodore Roosevelt
Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

7 related topics

Alpha

(clockwise from top left) Signal Corps extending telegraph lines

USS Iowa (BB-4)

Filipino soldiers wearing Spanish pith helmets outside Manila

The Spanish signing the Treaty of Paris

Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at San Juan Hill

Replacing of the Spanish flag at Fort San Antonio Abad (Fort Malate)

Spanish–American War

Period of armed conflict between Spain and the United States.

Period of armed conflict between Spain and the United States.

(clockwise from top left) Signal Corps extending telegraph lines

USS Iowa (BB-4)

Filipino soldiers wearing Spanish pith helmets outside Manila

The Spanish signing the Treaty of Paris

Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at San Juan Hill

Replacing of the Spanish flag at Fort San Antonio Abad (Fort Malate)
Cuban War of Independence
A Spanish satirical drawing published in La Campana de Gràcia (1896) criticizing U.S. behavior regarding Cuba by Manuel Moliné. Upper text reads (in old Catalan): "Uncle Sam's craving", and below: "To keep the island so it won't get lost".
An American cartoon published in Judge, February 6, 1897: Columbia (representing the American people) reaches out to the oppressed Cuba (the caption under the chained child reads "Spain's 16th Century methods") while Uncle Sam (representing the U.S. government) sits blindfolded, refusing to see the atrocities or use his guns to intervene (cartoon by Grant E. Hamilton).
Illustrated map published by the Guardia Civil showing the Kingdom of Spain and its remaining colonial possessions in 1895 (Caroline and Mariana Islands, as well as Spanish Sahara, Morocco, Guinea and Guam are not included.)
The American transport ship Seneca, a chartered vessel that carried troops to Puerto Rico and Cuba
Spanish Vessels captured up to evening of May 1, 1898
CHAP. 189. – An Act Declaring that war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain on April 25, 1898.
The last stand of the Spanish Garrison in Cuba by Murat Halstead, 1898
The Pacific theatre of the Spanish–American War
Spanish Marines trenched during the Battle of Manila Bay
The Battle of Manila Bay
Spanish artillery regiment during the Philippine Campaign
Group of Tagalog Filipino revolutionaries during the Spanish-American War of 1898
Spanish infantry troops and officers in Manila
The Spanish armored cruiser, which was destroyed during the Battle of Santiago on July 3, 1898
Detail from Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898, depicting the Battle of San Juan Hill
Mauser Model 1893 rifle, used by the Spanish infantry and superior to American rifles; the Springfield Model 1892-99 and the Krag-Jørgensen rifle. Because of this superiority the US Army developed the M1903 Springfield.
Charge of the Rough Riders
Receiving the news of the surrender of Santiago
The Santiago Campaign (1898)
Crewmen pose under the gun turrets of USS Iowa (BB-4) in 1898.
Spanish troops before they departed to engage the American forces at Hormigueros, Puerto Rico
A monument in Guánica, Puerto Rico, for the U.S. infantrymen who lost their lives in the Spanish–American War in 1898.
Oil on canvas painted and signed with initials A.A. by Antonio Antón and Antonio Iboleón, around 1897. It is an ideal view of the Spanish Squadron of Instruction in 1896, before the war of 1898, since the ships represented never sailed together. On the left the Battleship Pelayo with insignia, followed by the cruisers Cristóbal Colón, Infanta María Teresa and Alfonso XIII; on the right, the cruiser Carlos V with insignia, Almirante Oquendo and Vizcaya. On the starboard side of the Pelayo sails the torpedo boat Destructor; Two Furor-class destroyer boats sail along the bows of the Carlos V. Stormy sea and partly cloudy skies.
Cámara's squadron in the Suez Canal in July 1898. His flagship, the battleship Pelayo, can be seen in the foreground. The last ship of the line is the armored cruiser Carlos V. Finally this squad would not fight in the war.
Jules Cambon, the French ambassador to the United States, signing the memorandum of ratification on behalf of Spain
US Army "War with Spain" campaign streamer
Cross of Military Merit for Combat in Cuba

Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan was an exceptionally influential theorist; his ideas were much admired by future 26th President Theodore Roosevelt, as the U.S. rapidly built a powerful naval fleet of steel warships in the 1880s and 1890s.

Wood was given command of the regiment that quickly became known as the "Rough Riders".

General Wood in 1918

Leonard Wood

United States Army major general, physician, and public official.

United States Army major general, physician, and public official.

General Wood in 1918
Plaque honoring Wood at the Georgia Institute of Technology
General Joe Wheeler with the command group of the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry Regiment—Col Wood is 2nd from right with Lt Col Roosevelt far right.
Leonard Wood and son Osborne C. Wood, circa 1920.
John Singer Sargent, Leonard Wood, Maverick in the Making, 1903, National Portrait Gallery
Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood in later years
Louise Adriana Condit Smith Wood (1918)

During the Spanish–American War, he commanded the Rough Riders, with Theodore Roosevelt as his second-in-command.

''Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry,

Battle of San Juan Hill

Major battle of the Spanish–American War fought between an American force under the command of William Rufus Shafter and Joseph Wheeler against a Spanish force led by Arsenio Linares y Pombo.

Major battle of the Spanish–American War fought between an American force under the command of William Rufus Shafter and Joseph Wheeler against a Spanish force led by Arsenio Linares y Pombo.

''Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry,
U. S. Army photo of a soldier pointing at the top of Kettle Hill, c. July 4, 1898. In the background are the block houses on San Juan Hill and the American encampment.
At the Bloody Ford of the San Juan by Frederic Remington, 1898
US Army photo showing trench and block house on San Juan Hill about July 4, 1898. Soldiers are from the 10th U.S. Cavalry Regiment.
The Scream of Shrapnel at San Juan Hill, by Frederic Remington, 1898
Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill by Frederic Remington. In reality, they assaulted San Juan Heights and the portion later called Kettle Hill by the Americans.
Buffalo Soldiers who participated in the Spanish–American War at San Juan Hill.

A week later, a significantly larger American force, including the famed 'Rough Riders', moved to clear the heights of the Spanish.

The battle also proved to be the location of the "greatest victory" for the Rough Riders, as stated by the press and its new commander, Theodore Roosevelt, who eventually became vice president and later president of the United States, and who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in 2001 for his actions in Cuba and became the only U.S. president to receive the award.

The Battle of Guasimas near Santiago June 24th, 1898., Kurz and Allison

Battle of Las Guasimas

Spanish rearguard action by Major General Antero Rubín against advancing columns led by Major General "Fighting Joe" Wheeler and the first land engagement of the Spanish–American War.

Spanish rearguard action by Major General Antero Rubín against advancing columns led by Major General "Fighting Joe" Wheeler and the first land engagement of the Spanish–American War.

The Battle of Guasimas near Santiago June 24th, 1898., Kurz and Allison
Troops land, unopposed
"On the battleground of Las Guasimas - Americans going to the front" in Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain, Vol. II, 1899.
"The Battle of Las Guasimas, June 24 - Theodore Roosevelt can be seen 2d from left of standing soldiers in this fanciful sketch of the 'Rough Riders'" in Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain, 1899.

The battle unfolded from Wheeler's attempt to storm Spanish positions at Las Guasimas de Sevilla, in the jungles surrounding Santiago de Cuba, with the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry and the 10th Regular Cavalry.

Writing in his serialized set of articles (and later book), "The Rough Riders," Theodore Roosevelt described the opening phase of the battle that started on the right road and involved the 1st and 10th Regular Cavalry in Chapter III "General Young's Fight."

Wheeler dressed as a Confederate general in the 1860s

Joseph Wheeler

American military commander and politician.

American military commander and politician.

Wheeler dressed as a Confederate general in the 1860s
Wheeler at West Point
Joseph Wheeler during the Civil War
Wheeler's former residence in Washington, D.C.
Staff of the 1st US Volunteer Regiment, the "Rough Riders" in Tampa – Lt. Col. Roosevelt is on the right, Leonard Wood is next to him and bearded former Civil War Confederate general Joseph Wheeler is standing in front. Taylor MacDonald is on the far left and Major Alexander Oswald Brodie is next to him.
Wheeler in later life
National Statuary Hall Collection statue of Wheeler

He assumed command of the cavalry division, which included Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders, and was nominally second-in-command of the Fifth Army Corps.

Rough Riders (miniseries)

Rough Riders is a 1997 American television miniseries directed and co-written by John Milius about future President Theodore Roosevelt and the regiment known as the 1st US Volunteer Cavalry; the Rough Riders.

William McKinley

The 25th president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his assassination in 1901.

The 25th president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his assassination in 1901.

McKinley, aged 15
Rutherford B. Hayes was McKinley's mentor during and after the Civil War.
McKinley in 1865, just after the war, photograph by Mathew Brady
Ida Saxton McKinley
Katherine McKinley
Representative McKinley
'Judge' magazine cover from September 1890, showing McKinley (left) having helped dispatch Speaker Reed's opponent in early-voting Maine, hurrying off with the victor to McKinley's "jerrymandered" Ohio district
Even after his final run for president in 1884, James G. Blaine was still seen as a possible candidate for the Republican nomination. In this 1890 Puck cartoon, he is startling Reed and McKinley (right) as they make their plans for 1892.
McKinley's close friend and adviser, Mark Hanna
Louis Dalrymple cartoon from Puck magazine, June 24, 1896, showing McKinley about to crown himself with the Republican nomination. The "priests" are Hanna (in green) and Representative Charles H. Grosvenor (red); H. H. Kohlsaat is the page holding the robe.
Before the 1896 convention, McKinley tried to avoid coming down on one side or the other of the currency question. William Allen Rogers's cartoon from Harper's Weekly, June 1896, showing McKinley riding the rail of the currency question.
William and Ida McKinley (to her husband's left) pose with members of the "Flower Delegation" from Oil City, Pennsylvania, before the McKinley home. Although women could not vote in most states, they might influence male relatives and were encouraged to visit Canton.
A Man of Mark 1896 Homer Davenport cartoon of McKinley as Hanna's creature, from William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal
1896 Electoral vote results
Editorial cartoon intervention in Cuba. Columbia (the American people) reaches out to help oppressed Cuba in 1897 while Uncle Sam (the U.S. government) is blind to the crisis and will not use its powerful guns to help. Judge magazine, February 6, 1897.
Signing of the Treaty of Paris
Annexation of the Republic of Hawaii in 1898
American soldiers scale the walls of Beijing to relieve the siege of the International Legations, August 1900
1900 reelection poster with the theme that McKinley has returned prosperity to America
McKinley, (right of center) flanked by Georgia Governor Allen D. Candler (front row to McKinley's right) and Gen. William Rufus Shafter, reviewing the Atlanta Peace Jubilee parade, December 15, 1898
McKinley ran on his record of prosperity and victory in 1900, winning easy re-election over William Jennings Bryan.
McKinley entering the Temple of Music on September 6, 1901, shortly before the shots were fired
Artist's conception of the shooting of McKinley
The official Presidential portrait of William McKinley, by Harriet Anderson Stubbs Murphy
Chief Justice Melville Fuller swears in William McKinley as president; outgoing President Grover Cleveland at right
McKinley's tomb in Canton, Ohio
William McKinley Monument by Hermon MacNeil in front of the Ohio Statehouse, Columbus
McKinley Monument by Alexander Phimister Proctor in front of Buffalo City Hall, Buffalo
McKinley on the $500 bill
Louisiana Purchase Exposition stamp (1904) honoring McKinley, who had signed a bill authorizing a subsidy for that upcoming event
McKinley Monument in front of Lucas County Courthouse, Toledo

McKinley died eight days later and was succeeded by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt.

After a stint as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Roosevelt had resigned and raised a cavalry regiment; they fought bravely in Cuba, and Roosevelt returned home covered in glory.