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Glyphosate-based herbicides

glyphosate formulationglyphosate-based herbicide
Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum glyphosate-based herbicide originally produced by the American company Monsanto, which was acquired by Bayer in 2018.
The glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup was first developed by Monsanto in the 1970s.

Glyphosate

Roundupglycosphateglyphosates
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the United States. Monsanto developed and patented the glyphosate molecule in the 1970s, and marketed Roundup from 1973. The main active ingredient of Roundup is the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate.
Monsanto brought it to market for agricultural use in 1974 under the trade name Roundup. Monsanto's last commercially relevant United States patent expired in 2000.

Bayer

Bayer AGBayer CropScienceBayer Pharmaceuticals
Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum glyphosate-based herbicide originally produced by the American company Monsanto, which was acquired by Bayer in 2018.
In August 2018, two months after acquiring Monsanto, a U.S. jury ordered Monsanto to pay $289 million to a school groundskeeper who claimed his Non-Hodgkins lymphoma was caused by regularly using Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide produced by Monsanto.

Hazard

hazardoushazardshealth hazard
The IARC has been criticized for its assessment methodology by failing to consider the broad literature and only assessing hazard rather than risk.
Many specific biological hazards have been identified. For example, the hazards of naturally-occurring bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, are well known as disease-causing pathogens and a variety of measures have been taken to limit human exposure to these microorganisms through food safety, good personal hygiene and education. However, the potential for new biological hazards exists through the discovery of new microorganisms and through the development of new genetically modified (GM) organisms. Use of new GM organisms is regulated by various governmental agencies. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) controls GM plants that produce or resist pesticides (i.e. Bt corn and Roundup ready crops). The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates GM plants that will be used as food or for medicinal purposes.

Roundup

tr:Roundup
Roundup (herbicide), a Monsanto brand of glyphosate-based herbicides

Monsanto legal cases

In re: RoundUp Products Liabilitya lawsuitdamages against
After the IARC classified glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic" in 2015, over 300 federal lawsuits have been filed that were consolidated into a multidistrict litigation called In re: RoundUp Products Liability.
The case concerned an injunction against the planting of Monsanto's genetically engineered Roundup Ready alfalfa (RRA).

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneGenuity
Roundup is the brand name of a systemic, broad-spectrum glyphosate-based herbicide originally produced by the American company Monsanto, which was acquired by Bayer in 2018.
Monsanto developed Roundup, a glyphosate-based herbicide, in the 1970s, and became a major producer of genetically engineered crops.

Genetically modified plant

transgenic planttransgenic plantsgenetically modified plants
As of 2009, sales of Roundup herbicides still represented about 10% of Monsanto's revenue despite competition from Chinese producers of other glyphosate-based herbicides; the overall Roundup line of products (which includes genetically modified seeds) represented about half of Monsanto's yearly revenue.

Patent

patentspatent lawpatented
Monsanto developed and patented the glyphosate molecule in the 1970s, and marketed Roundup from 1973.

United States Patent and Trademark Office

U.S. Patent OfficeU.S. Patent and Trademark OfficeUSPTO
The Roundup trademark is registered with the US Patent Office and still extant.

France

🇫🇷FrenchFRA
As of January 2019, "the sale, distribution, and use of Roundup 360 is banned" in France.

Active ingredient

active pharmaceutical ingredientactive pharmaceutical ingredientsactive ingredients
The main active ingredient of Roundup is the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate.

Isopropylamine

isopropyl amine
The main active ingredient of Roundup is the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate.

Salt

table saltsalt productioncommon salt
The main active ingredient of Roundup is the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate.

Surfactant

surfactantswetting agentbiosurfactant
Another ingredient of Roundup is the surfactant POEA (polyethoxylated tallow amine).

Polyethoxylated tallow amine

POEAPOEAstallow amine
Another ingredient of Roundup is the surfactant POEA (polyethoxylated tallow amine).

Genetic engineering

genetically engineeredgenetically modifiedgenetic modification
Monsanto also produced seeds which grow into plants genetically engineered to be tolerant to glyphosate, which are known as Roundup Ready crops.

Dose–response relationship

dose-dependentdose-response relationshipdose-response curve
The acute oral toxicity for mammals is low, but death has been reported after deliberate overdose of concentrated Roundup.

Drug interaction

interactdrug interactionsdrug-drug interaction
Surfactants generally do not, however, cause synergistic effects (as opposed to additive effects) that increase the acute toxicity of glyphosate within a formulation.

Vitamin A

Avitamins ARAE
The surfactant POEA is not considered an acute toxicity hazard, and has an oral toxicity similar to vitamin A and less toxic than asprin.

Aspirin

acetylsalicylic acidASAbaby aspirin
The surfactant POEA is not considered an acute toxicity hazard, and has an oral toxicity similar to vitamin A and less toxic than asprin.

Pulmonary edema

pulmonary oedemapulmonary congestionacute pulmonary edema
More severe cases lead to "respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary edema, infiltration on chest X-ray, shock, arrhythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis, and hyperkalaemia" and death is often preceded by bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias.

Bradycardia

slow heart rateslowed heart ratebradyarrhythmia
More severe cases lead to "respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary edema, infiltration on chest X-ray, shock, arrhythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis, and hyperkalaemia" and death is often preceded by bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias.

Heart arrhythmia

arrhythmiacardiac arrhythmiaarrhythmias
More severe cases lead to "respiratory distress, impaired consciousness, pulmonary edema, infiltration on chest X-ray, shock, arrhythmias, renal failure requiring haemodialysis, metabolic acidosis, and hyperkalaemia" and death is often preceded by bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias.

Contact dermatitis

contact allergycontact allergiesoccupational dermatitis
Skin exposure can cause irritation, and photocontact dermatitis has been occasionally reported.