Routing protocol

Routing protocol classification computer networks.

A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other to distribute information that enables them to select routes between nodes on a computer network.

- Routing protocol

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Routing

Process of selecting a path for traffic in a network or between or across multiple networks.

A small example network with eight vertices and ten edges

Routing tables may be specified by an administrator, learned by observing network traffic or built with the assistance of routing protocols.

Scalability

Property of a system to handle a growing amount of work by adding resources to the system.

The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability and demand. The graph depicts an increase (that is, right-shift) in demand from D1 to D2 along with the consequent increase in price and quantity required to reach a new equilibrium point on the supply curve (S).

A routing protocol is considered scalable with respect to network size, if the size of the necessary routing table on each node grows as O(log N), where N is the number of nodes in the network. Some early peer-to-peer (P2P) implementations of Gnutella had scaling issues. Each node query flooded its requests to all nodes. The demand on each peer increased in proportion to the total number of peers, quickly overrunning their capacity. Other P2P systems like BitTorrent scale well because the demand on each peer is independent of the number of peers. Nothing is centralized, so the system can expand indefinitely without any resources other than the peers themselves.

Open Shortest Path First

Example of backbone, area 0 with 2 routers, R1 and R2
Figure show 3 routers with 2 areas, area 0 and area 122, sharing one router.
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Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

IS-IS

Routing protocol classification computer networks.

Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS, also written ISIS) is a routing protocol designed to move information efficiently within a computer network, a group of physically connected computers or similar devices.

Link-state routing protocol

Routing protocol classification computer networks.

Link-state routing protocols are one of the two main classes of routing protocols used in packet switching networks for computer communications, the other being distance-vector routing protocols.

Internet Protocol

Network layer communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

Encapsulation of application data carried by UDP to a link protocol frame
A timeline for the development of the transmission control Protocol TCP and Internet Protocol IP.
First Internet demonstration, linking the ARPANET, PRNET, and SATNET on November 22, 1977

Routers communicate with one another via specially designed routing protocols, either interior gateway protocols or exterior gateway protocols, as needed for the topology of the network.

Routing Information Protocol

One of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employs the hop count as a routing metric.

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In most networking environments, RIP is not the preferred choice of routing protocol, as its time to converge and scalability are poor compared to EIGRP, OSPF, or IS-IS.

Router (computing)

Networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.

Rack containing several enterprise class routers connected to multiple networks
Home and small office wireless router
A typical home or small office DSL router showing the telephone socket (left, white) to connect it to the internet using ADSL, and Ethernet jacks (right, yellow) to connect it to home computers and printers.
A screenshot of the LuCI web interface used by OpenWrt. This page configures Dynamic DNS.
The first ARPANET router, the Interface Message Processor was delivered to UCLA August 30, 1969, and went online October 29, 1969

When multiple routers are used in interconnected networks, the routers can exchange information about destination addresses using a routing protocol.

Interior gateway protocol

Routing protocol classification computer networks.

An interior gateway protocol (IGP) is a type of routing protocol used for exchanging routing table information between gateways (commonly routers) within an autonomous system (for example, a system of corporate local area networks).

IPv6

Most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.

IPv6 header
Glossary of terms used for IPv6 addresses
Decomposition of the dot-decimal IPv4 address representation to its binary value
Multicast structure in IPv6
Several examples of IPv6 extension headers
IPv6 packet header
A general structure for an IPv6 unicast address
The Link-Local Unicast Address structure in IPv6
The global unicast address structure in IPv6
IPv6 Prefix Assignment mechanism with IANA, RIRs, and ISPs
IPv4-compatible IPv6 unicast address
IPv4-mapped IPv6 unicast address
A timeline for the standards governing IPv6
Monthly IPv6 allocations per regional Internet registry (RIR)

Dual-stack clients should only be configured to prefer IPv6, if the network is able to forward IPv6 packets using the IPv6 versions of routing protocols.