Royal Marriages Act 1772

Royal Marriages ActRoyal Marriages Act of 1772Sussex Peeragethe Act 12 Geo. III, cap. 11
The Royal Marriages Act 1772 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain which prescribed the conditions under which members of the British royal family could contract a valid marriage, in order to guard against marriages that could diminish the status of the royal house.wikipedia
299 Related Articles

Succession to the Crown Act 2013

Succession to the Crown Bill 2012Succession to the Crown BillSuccession to the Crown Act
Under the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, the first six people in the line of succession need permission to marry if they and their descendants are to remain in the line of succession.
The act repealed the Royal Marriages Act 1772, replacing male-preference primogeniture with absolute primogeniture for those born in the line of succession after 28 October 2011, which meant the eldest child, regardless of sex, would precede his or her brothers and sisters.

Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn

Duke of CumberlandPrince Henry, Duke of CumberlandPrince Henry
The Act was proposed by George III as a direct result of the marriage of his brother, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, who in 1771 had married the commoner Anne Horton, the daughter of Simon Luttrell and the widow of Christopher Horton.
His 1771 marriage to a commoner against the King's wishes prompted the Royal Marriages Act of 1772.

Lady Augusta Murray

The Lady Augusta Murray
Although they married, their union was in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772 and as such was considered legally void.

Cecilia Underwood, 1st Duchess of Inverness

Duchess of InvernessLady Cecilia UnderwoodCecilia Underwood, Duchess of Inverness
Despite marrying, their union was in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772 and as such was considered legally void.

George IV of the United Kingdom

George IVKing George IVPrince Regent
This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, and the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the King's consent.

Sarah Fairbrother

Sarah Louisa FairbrotherLouisa Fairbrother
As the couple married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, their marriage was not recognised under the law.

Dynasty

dynasticroyal housedynasties
All European monarchies, and many non-European realms, have laws or traditions requiring prior approval of the monarch for members of the reigning dynasty to marry.
He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015.

Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh

Prince William HenryDuke of Gloucesterthe Duke of Gloucester
Royal Assent was given to the Act on 1 April 1772, and it was only on 13 September following that the King learned that another brother, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, had in 1766 secretly married Maria, the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole and the widow of the 2nd Earl Waldegrave.
This marriage only became known to the King after the passing of the Royal Marriages Act 1772.

Maria Fitzherbert

Mrs FitzherbertMaria Anne FitzherbertMrs. Fitzherbert
The marriage was not valid under English law because it had not received the prior approval of King George III and the Privy Council as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772.

Perth Agreement

proposals to change the rules of royal successionagreement by the prime ministers of the sixteen Commonwealth Realmsannounced
It was repealed as a result of the 2011 Perth Agreement, which came into force on 26 March 2015.
Under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, almost every descendant of King George II needed the Queen's permission to marry, which by 2011 was thousands of people.

Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex

Duke of SussexPrince Augustus FrederickPrince Augustus
It had been claimed that the marriage of Prince Augustus had been legal in Ireland and Hanover, but the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords ruled (in the Sussex Peerage Case, 9 July 1844) that the Act incapacitated the descendants of George II from contracting a legal marriage without the consent of the Crown, either within the British dominions or elsewhere.
In August 1794, the Court of Arches annulled the prince's first marriage on the grounds that it contravened the Royal Marriages Act 1772, not having been approved by the King.

Duke of Sussex

SussexDuchess of SussexDukedom of Sussex
It had been claimed that the marriage of Prince Augustus had been legal in Ireland and Hanover, but the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords ruled (in the Sussex Peerage Case, 9 July 1844) that the Act incapacitated the descendants of George II from contracting a legal marriage without the consent of the Crown, either within the British dominions or elsewhere.
Although Prince Augustus Frederick was survived by a son and daughter by Lady Augusta Murray, their marriage (purportedly solemnized at St George's Hanover Square Church, Westminster, in 1793) had been annulled for lack of royal permission under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, rendering the children illegitimate under English law and unable to inherit titles from their father.

Prince George William of Hanover (1915–2006)

Prince George William of HanoverPrince George WilliamPrince
After consultations with the Foreign Office, Home Office and King George VI's private secretary, Sir Alan Lascelles, a ciphered telegram dated 18 April 1946 and crafted by Sir Albert Napier, permanent secretary to the Lord Chancellor, was transmitted from the British Foreign Office to the Foreign Adviser to the British Commander in Chief at Berlin: "The Duke of Brunswick has formally applied to The King by letter of March 22nd for the consent of His Majesty under the Act 12 Geo. III, cap. 11 to the marriage of his son Prince George William with Princess Sophia Dowager Princess of Hesse. The marriage is understood to be taking place on April 23rd. Please convey to the Duke an informal intimation that in view of the fact that a state of war still exists between Great Britain and Germany, His Majesty is advised that the case is not one in which it is practicable for His consent to be given in the manner contemplated by the Act."

Charles, Prince of Wales

Prince CharlesThe Prince of WalesPrince of Wales
Moreover, Charles, Prince of Wales, his issue, siblings, and their issue descend from yet another such marriage, that of Princess Alice, a daughter of Queen Victoria, to Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse, through their great-grandson Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
The Queen's consent to the marriage (as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772) was recorded in a Privy Council meeting on 2 March.

Prince George, Duke of Cambridge

Duke of CambridgeThe Duke of CambridgePrince George
He was married privately and in contravention of the 1772 Royal Marriages Act at St. John's Church, Clerkenwell, London, on 8 January 1847 to Sarah Fairbrother (1816 – 12 January 1890), the daughter of John Fairbrother, a servant in Westminster.

Anne, Duchess of Cumberland and Strathearn

Anne HortonAnne LuttrellAnne, Duchess of Cumberland
The Act was proposed by George III as a direct result of the marriage of his brother, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, who in 1771 had married the commoner Anne Horton, the daughter of Simon Luttrell and the widow of Christopher Horton.
He later had the Royal Marriages Act 1772 passed to prevent any descendant of George II marrying without the consent of the sovereign, a law which remained in effect until passage of the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, which, in addition to several other modifications, limited the requirement to obtain royal consent to only the first six persons in line to the throne (rather than all descendants).

George III of the United Kingdom

George IIIKing George IIIGeorge III of Great Britain
The Act was proposed by George III as a direct result of the marriage of his brother, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, who in 1771 had married the commoner Anne Horton, the daughter of Simon Luttrell and the widow of Christopher Horton.
The subsequent bill was unpopular in Parliament, including among George's own ministers, but passed as the Royal Marriages Act 1772.

Caroline of Brunswick

Queen CarolinePrincess Caroline of BrunswickCaroline
He had himself already secretly married Maria Fitzherbert; however, his marriage to Fitzherbert violated the Royal Marriages Act 1772 and thus was not legally valid.

Maria, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh

Maria WalpoleMariaMaria, Countess Waldegrave
Royal Assent was given to the Act on 1 April 1772, and it was only on 13 September following that the King learned that another brother, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, had in 1766 secretly married Maria, the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole and the widow of the 2nd Earl Waldegrave.
The marriage to a commoner of the Duke's other brother, the Duke of Cumberland, led to the passing of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which required all the descendants of George II to seek the sovereign's approval before marriage.

Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom

Princess BeatricePrincess Henry of BattenbergBeatrice
After a year of persuasion, the Queen, whose consent was required pursuant to the Royal Marriages Act, finally agreed to the marriage, which took place at Whippingham on the Isle of Wight on 23 July 1885.

Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark

Princess George William of HanoverSophiePrincess Sophie
Sophie's marriage to George William constitutes the only known case of permission to marry being withheld by the British sovereign from a descendant of King George II, who had been obliged by the Royal Marriages Act 1772 to apply for royal consent to marry.

Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Princess Victoria Melita of EdinburghVictoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and GothaVictoria Melita
They wed without the formal approval of Britain's King Edward VII, required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772, and in defiance of Tsar Nicholas II.

Simon Luttrell, 1st Earl of Carhampton

Simon LuttrellThe Lord IrnhamLord Carhampton
The Act was proposed by George III as a direct result of the marriage of his brother, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, who in 1771 had married the commoner Anne Horton, the daughter of Simon Luttrell and the widow of Christopher Horton.

Caroline, Princess of Hanover

Princess Caroline of MonacoPrincess CarolineCaroline
Thus, on 11 January 1999, Elizabeth II issued the following Declaration in Council: "My Lords, I do hereby declare My Consent to a Contract of Matrimony between His Royal Highness Prince Ernst August Albert of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Her Serene Highness Princess Caroline Louise Marguerite of Monaco...".
As a legitimate male-line descendant of George III, Ernst August was subject to the Royal Marriages Act 1772 (repealed in 2015).

Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom

Princess ElizabethElizabethElizabeth of the United Kingdom
Any such marriage would have been null and void under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, but several of Elizabeth's brothers contracted similar alliances with commoners before marrying German princesses later in life.