Royal Observatory, Greenwich

Royal Greenwich ObservatoryRoyal ObservatoryGreenwich ObservatoryGreenwichRoyal Observatory GreenwichGreenwich Royal ObservatoryRoyal Observatory at GreenwichRGORoyal ObservatoriesRoyal Observatory in Greenwich
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.wikipedia
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Prime meridian (Greenwich)

Greenwich MeridianPrime MeridianGreenwich
It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and because the prime meridian passes through it, it gave its name to Greenwich Mean Time.
The future prime meridian based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851.

Greenwich Mean Time

GMTGMT+4UTC±00:00
It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and because the prime meridian passes through it, it gave its name to Greenwich Mean Time.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight.

National Maritime Museum

Caird MedalNMMNational Maritime Museum, Greenwich
ROG, the National Maritime Museum, the Queen's House and Cutty Sark are collectively designated Royal Museums Greenwich.
The historic buildings form part of the Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site, and it also incorporates the Royal Observatory and 17th-century Queen's House.

John Flamsteed

FlamsteedHistoria Coelestis BritannicaFlamsteed, John
He appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer Royal.
He also made the first recorded observations of Uranus, although he mistakenly catalogued it as a star, and he laid the foundation stone for the Royal Greenwich Observatory.

Greenwich Park

GreenreachGreenwich Royal Park
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.
Greenwich Castle, by now in disrepair, was chosen for the site of the Royal Observatory by Charles II in 1675.

Astronomer Royal

Astronomer-RoyalAstronomers Royalastronomer
At that time the king also created the position of Astronomer Royal, to serve as the director of the observatory and to "apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation."
The post was created by King Charles II in 1675, at the same time as he founded the Royal Observatory Greenwich.

Greenwich 28 inch refractor

28-inch Grubb Refractor28-inch Great refractor28-inch refractor
The Greenwich 28-inch refractor is a telescope at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, where it was first installed in 1893.

Herstmonceux

HerstmonceauxHurstmonceuxHurstmonceaux
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.
Herstmonceux Castle 2 mi south-east of the village is a former site of the Royal Greenwich Observatory.

Time ball

balltime-balltimeball
To help mariners at the port and others in line of sight of the observatory to synchronise their clocks to GMT, Astronomer Royal John Pond installed a very visible time ball that drops precisely at 1 p.m. (13:00) every day atop the observatory in 1833.
One was installed in 1833 at the Greenwich Observatory in London by the Astronomer Royal, John Pond, and the time ball has dropped at 1 p.m. every day since then.

Sheepshanks equatorial

Sheepshanks telescopeSheepshanks refractor
Sheepshanks equatorial was a 6.7 inch (170 mm) refracting telescope established in 1838 at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich.

Observatory

astronomical observatoryobservatoriesastronomical observatories
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.

Yapp telescope

36-inch Yapp reflectorYapp 36 Inch reflector
The largest telescope at Greenwich at that time, the Yapp telescope 36-inch reflector, was moved out to Herstmonceux in 1958.
It was ordered from Grubb Parsons in 1931 by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and installed in a new dome building there.

Jonas Moore

Sir Jonas MooreJonas Moore IMoore, Jonas
The establishment of a Royal Observatory was proposed in 1674 by Sir Jonas Moore who, in his role as Surveyor-General of the Ordnance, persuaded King Charles II to create the observatory, with John Flamsteed installed as its director.
In later life, his wealth and influence as Surveyor-General of the Ordnance enabled him to become a patron and driving force behind the establishment of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

Longitude

WestlongitudinalE
The basis of longitude, the meridian that passes through the Airy transit circle, first used in 1851, was adopted as the world's Prime Meridian at the International Meridian Conference on 22 October 1884 (voting took place on 13 October).
By convention, one of these, the Prime Meridian, which passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England, was allocated the position of 0° longitude.

Greenwich Time Signal

pipsBBC pipsGreenwich pips
The pips were originally controlled by two mechanical clocks located in the Royal Greenwich Observatory that had electrical contacts attached to their pendula.

Nevil Maskelyne

MaskelyneMaskelyne, NevilNeville Maskelyne
Since the observations that fed into the Nautical Almanac were made at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, the Greenwich meridian became the reference for measurements of longitude in the Royal Navy, and on British Admiralty charts.

Shuckburgh telescope

The Shuckburgh telescope of the Royal Observatory in London was used for the 1832 transit of Mercury.
It was transferred to the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in 1811 and the London Science Museum in 1929.

Thomas Tompion

Tompion
Moore donated two clocks, built by Thomas Tompion, which were installed in the 20 foot high Octagon Room, the principal room of the building.
When the Royal Observatory was established in 1676, King Charles II selected Tompion to create two identical clocks based on Hooke's idea of a very long pendulum swinging in a very small arc. These were fixed in the Octagon room, each was driven by a deadbeat escapement designed by Richard Towneley, with both clocks only needing to be wound once a year.

Refracting telescope

refractorrefractor telescopeGalilean telescope
It also houses the astronomical instruments used to make meridian observations and the 28-inch equatorial Grubb refracting telescope of 1893, the largest of its kind in the UK.
In the Royal Observatory, Greenwich an 1838 instrument named the Sheepshanks telescope includes an objective by Cauchoix.

The Nautical Almanac

Nautical AlmanacNautical Almanac and Astronomical Ephemeris ''Nautical Almanac
By the later 18th century it incorporated additional responsibilities such as publishing the Nautical Almanac, advising government on technical matters, disseminating time, making meteorological and magnetic observations and undertaking astrophotography and spectroscopy.
It was originally published from the Royal Greenwich Observatory in England.

Transit of Mercury

Mercurytransits of MercuryMercury transit
The Shuckburgh telescope of the Royal Observatory in London was used for the 1832 transit of Mercury.
The Shuckburgh telescope of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in London was used for the 1832 transit of Mercury.

Shepherd Gate Clock

Shepherd Master Clock
Initially it was dropped by an operator; from 1852 it was released automatically via an electric impulse from the Shepherd Master Clock.
The Shepherd Gate Clock is mounted on the wall outside the gate of the Royal Greenwich Observatory building in Greenwich, Greater London.

World Geodetic System

WGS84WGS 84GPS coordinates
Modern geodetic reference systems, such as the World Geodetic System and the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, use a single oblate spheroid, fixed to the Earth's gravitational centre.
The WGS 84 meridian of zero longitude is the IERS Reference Meridian, 5.3 arc seconds or 102 m east of the Greenwich meridian at the latitude of the Royal Observatory.

Charles II of England

Charles IIKing Charles IIKing Charles II of England
The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August.
Charles, a patron of the arts and sciences, founded the Royal Observatory and supported the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton.

Meridian (geography)

meridianmeridiansmeridian line
Four separate meridians have passed through the buildings, defined by successive instruments.
The meridian through Greenwich (inside Greenwich Park), England, called the Prime Meridian, was set at zero degrees of longitude, while other meridians were defined by the angle at the center of the earth between where it and the prime meridian cross the equator.