Royal Society

FRSFellow of the Royal SocietyRoyal Society of Londonthe Royal SocietyForMemRSFRS(For)FRSForFellowF.R.S. Royal Society of London
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.wikipedia
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Fellow of the Royal Society

FRSForMemRSF.R.S.
As of 2016, there are about 1,600 fellows, allowed to use the postnominal title FRS (Fellow of the Royal Society), with up to 52 new fellows appointed each year.
Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'.

Academy of sciences

academies of sciencesAcademies of Sciencescience academies
The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement.
Some state funded academies are tuned into national or royal (in case of the United Kingdom i.e. Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge) as a form of honor.

Invisible College

Royal Society
The Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle.
One group that has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisted of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle.

United Kingdom

British🇬🇧UK
The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement.
With the founding of the Royal Society in 1660, science was greatly encouraged.

Republic of Letters

Respublica literariaRépublique des Lettres
The term accrued currency for the exchanges of correspondence within the Republic of Letters.
The foundation of the Royal Society in 1662, with its open door, was particularly important in legitimizing the Republic of Letters in England and providing a European center of gravity for the movement.

Gresham College and the formation of the Royal Society

1660 committee of 121645 groupGresham College
On 28 November 1660, the 1660 committee of 12 announced the formation of a "College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning", which would meet weekly to discuss science and run experiments.
The Gresham College group was a loose collection of scientists in England of the 1640s and 1650s, a precursor to the Royal Society of London.

Robert Hooke

HookeDr Robert HookeHooke, Robert
Robert Hooke, however, disputed this, writing that:
At one time he was simultaneously the curator of experiments of the Royal Society, a member of its council, Gresham Professor of Geometry, and Surveyor to the City of London after the Great Fire of London (in which capacity he appears to have performed more than half of all the surveys after the fire).

Learned society

learned societiesscientific societysociety
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Some of the oldest learned societies are the Académie des Jeux floraux (founded 1323), the Sodalitas Litterarum Vistulana (founded 1488), the Accademia della Crusca (founded 1585), the Accademia dei Lincei (founded 1603), the Académie Française (founded 1635), the Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (founded 1652), the Royal Society of London (founded 1660) and the French Academy of Sciences (founded 1666).

William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker

William BrounckerLord BrounckerBrouncker
At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, and a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker, PRS (1620 – 5 April 1684) was an English mathematician who introduced Brouncker's formula, and was the first President of the Royal Society.

Gresham College

Gresham Special LectureGresham (City Side) CommitteeGresham Committee
The Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at a variety of locations, including Gresham College in London.
The early success of the College led to the incorporation of the Royal Society in 1663, which pursued its activities at the College in Bishopsgate before moving to its own premises in Crane Court in 1710.

Robert Moray

Sir Robert MorayRobert MurraySir Robert Murray
At the second meeting, Sir Robert Moray announced that the King approved of the gatherings, and a royal charter was signed on 15 July 1662 which created the "Royal Society of London", with Lord Brouncker serving as the first president.
He attended the meeting of the 1660 committee of 12 on 28 November 1660 that led to the formation of the Royal Society, and was influential in gaining its Royal Charter and formulating its statutes and regulations.

John Wilkins

WilkinsWilkinBishop Wilkins
Henry Oldenburg and Thomas Sprat put forward plans in 1667 and Oldenburg's co-secretary, John Wilkins, moved in a council meeting on 30 September 1667 to appoint a committee "for raising contributions among the members of the society, in order to build a college".
John Wilkins, (1614–1672) was an Anglican clergyman, natural philosopher and author, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society.

Henry Oldenburg

OldenburgHenry (Heinrich) Oldenburg
This view was held by Jean-Baptiste du Hamel, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Melchisédech Thévenot at the time and has some grounding in that Henry Oldenburg, the society's first secretary, had attended the Montmor Academy meeting.
At the foundation of the Royal Society he took on the task of foreign correspondence, as the first Secretary.

University of Oxford

OxfordOxford UniversityUniversity
Michael Hunter argues that this was influenced by "Solomon's House" in Bacon's New Atlantis and, to a lesser extent, by J. V. Andreae's Christianopolis, dedicated research institutes, rather than the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, since the founders only intended for the society to act as a location for research and discussion.
This group held regular meetings at Wadham under the guidance of the College's Warden, John Wilkins, and the group formed the nucleus which went on to found the Royal Society.

Robert Boyle

BoyleBoyle, Robert[Robert] Boyle
The Invisible College has been described as a precursor group to the Royal Society of London, consisting of a number of natural philosophers around Robert Boyle.
In 1663 the Invisible College became The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, and the charter of incorporation granted by Charles II of England named Boyle a member of the council.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical TransactionsPhil. Trans.Transactions
The number of fellows had increased from 110 to approximately 300 by 1739, the reputation of the society had increased under the presidency of Sir Isaac Newton from 1703 until his death in 1727, and editions of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society were appearing regularly.
Trans.') from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

Rosicrucianism

RosicrucianRosicruciansRosicrucian Order
The concept of "invisible college" is mentioned in German Rosicrucian pamphlets in the early 17th century.
This was the precursor to the Royal Society founded in 1660.

New Atlantis

BensalemThe New Atlantisutopia
They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis, from approximately 1645 onwards.
New Atlantis and other writings of Bacon inspired the formation of the Royal Society.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
During his time as president, Newton arguably abused his authority; in a dispute between himself and Gottfried Leibniz over the invention of infinitesimal calculus, he used his position to appoint an "impartial" committee to decide it, eventually publishing a report written by himself in the committee's name.
He met with the Royal Society where he demonstrated a calculating machine that he had designed and had been building since 1670.

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
The number of fellows had increased from 110 to approximately 300 by 1739, the reputation of the society had increased under the presidency of Sir Isaac Newton from 1703 until his death in 1727, and editions of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society were appearing regularly.
He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden (1696–1700) and Master (1700–1727) of the Royal Mint, as well as president of the Royal Society (1703–1727).

James South

Sir James South
The scientific Fellows of the Society were spurred into action by this, and eventually James South established a Charters Committee "with a view to obtaining a supplementary Charter from the Crown", aimed primarily at looking at ways to restrict membership.
Sir James South FRS FRSE PRAS FLS LLD (October 1785 – 19 October 1867) was a British astronomer.

Joseph Banks

Sir Joseph BanksBanksBanksian
The property was offered to the society by His Majesty's Government and, as soon as Sir Joseph Banks became president in November 1778, he began planning the move.
He held the position of President of the Royal Society for over 41 years.

Benjamin Franklin

FranklinBen FranklinFranklin, Benjamin
The pointed lightning conductor had been invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1749, while Benjamin Wilson invented blunted ones.
In recognition of his work with electricity, Franklin received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1753, and in 1756 he became one of the few 18th-century Americans elected as a Fellow of the Society.

British Museum

the British MuseumBrit. Mus.British
As a result, the museum was handed to the British Museum in 1781 and the library was extended to two rooms, one of which was used for council meetings.
It was one of two antiquities of Hamilton's collection drawn for him by Francesco Progenie, a pupil of Pietro Fabris, who also contributed a number of drawings of Mount Vesuvius sent by Hamilton to the Royal Society in London.

Philip Yorke, 2nd Earl of Hardwicke

Philip YorkeViscount RoystonLord Hardwicke
Named after Lord Hardwicke, the group's members included Daniel Wray and Thomas Birch and was most prominent in the 1750s and '60s.
In 1741 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.