Royal assent

assentassentedassented to[Royal] Assentassent on the Sovereign's behalfAssent to Lawsassent to legislationfinal approval of its Parliamentary Actgrand ducal assentgrant Royal Assent
Royal assent is the method by which a monarch formally approves an act of the legislature (either directly, or through an official acting on the monarch's behalf).wikipedia
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Constitutional monarchy

constitutional monarchiesconstitutional monarchconstitutional
Under a modern constitutional monarchy royal assent is considered to be little more than a formality; even in those nations which still, in theory, permit the monarch to withhold assent to laws (such as the United Kingdom, Norway, and Liechtenstein), the monarch almost never does so, save in a dire political emergency or upon the advice of their government.
In addition to acting as a visible symbol of national unity, a constitutional monarch may hold formal powers such as dissolving parliament or giving royal assent to legislation.

Governor-General of Australia

Governor-GeneralGovernor General of AustraliaGovernor General
In other nations, such as Australia, the governor-general (as the monarch's representative) merely signs a bill.
The functions of the governor-general include appointing ministers, judges, and ambassadors; giving royal assent to legislation passed by parliament; issuing writs for election; and bestowing Australian honours.

Veto

overridevetoedveto power
While the power to veto a law by withholding royal assent was once exercised often by European monarchs, such an occurrence has been very rare since the eighteenth century.
In Westminster systems and most constitutional monarchies, the power to veto legislation by withholding the Royal Assent is a rarely used reserve power of the monarch.

Reserve power

reserve powersdiscretionary powersdiscretionary power
Typically these powers are: to grant pardon; to dismiss a prime minister; to refuse to dissolve parliament; and to refuse or delay royal assent to legislation (to withhold royal assent amounts to a veto of a bill, while to reserve royal assent in effect amounts to a decision to neither grant nor refuse assent, but to delay taking a decision for an undetermined period).

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
Under a modern constitutional monarchy royal assent is considered to be little more than a formality; even in those nations which still, in theory, permit the monarch to withhold assent to laws (such as the United Kingdom, Norway, and Liechtenstein), the monarch almost never does so, save in a dire political emergency or upon the advice of their government.
All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law.

Lords Commissioners

Royal CommissionLord CommissionerCommission
In the United Kingdom, for instance, the sovereign may appear personally in the House of Lords or may appoint Lords Commissioners, who announce that royal assent has been granted at a ceremony held at the Palace of Westminster for this purpose.
These include the opening and prorogation of Parliament, the confirmation of a newly elected Speaker of the House of Commons and the granting of Royal Assent.

House of Lords

LordsBritish House of LordsThe House of Lords
In the United Kingdom, for instance, the sovereign may appear personally in the House of Lords or may appoint Lords Commissioners, who announce that royal assent has been granted at a ceremony held at the Palace of Westminster for this purpose. The body eventually came to be divided into two branches: bishops, abbots, earls, and barons formed the House of Lords, while the shire and borough representatives formed the House of Commons.
The House of Lords Reform Act 2014 received the Royal Assent in 2014.

Royal Assent by Commission Act 1541

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Before the Royal Assent by Commission Act 1541 became law, assent was always required to be given by the sovereign in person before Parliament.
It also created a new way in which the Royal Assent could be granted to legislation.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of CommonsBritish House of CommonsCommons
The body eventually came to be divided into two branches: bishops, abbots, earls, and barons formed the House of Lords, while the shire and borough representatives formed the House of Commons.
The supremacy of the Commons in legislative matters is assured by the Parliament Acts, under which certain types of bills may be presented to the Queen for Royal Assent without the consent of the House of Lords.

Royal Assent Act 1967

The Act was repealed and replaced by the Royal Assent Act 1967.
23)''' is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that amends the law relating to the signification of royal assent to allow laws from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to be enacted though the pronunciation and notification of both Houses of Parliament, and repeals the Royal Assent by Commission Act 1541.

Governor General of Canada

Governor GeneralGovernor-General of CanadaGovernor-General
In Canada, the governor general may give assent either in person at a ceremony held in the Senate or by a written declaration notifying parliament of their agreement to the bill.
The governor general also grants Royal Assent in the 's name; legally, he or she has three options: grant Royal Assent (making the bill law), withhold Royal Assent (vetoing the bill), or reserve the bill for the signification of the 's pleasure (allowing the sovereign to personally grant or withhold assent).

Letters patent

commissionpatentroyal patent
However, royal assent is usually granted less ceremonially by letters patent.
They can thus be contrasted with the Act of Parliament, which is in effect a written order by Parliament involving assent by the monarch in conjunction with its members.

Parliament Act 1911

Parliament ActParliament Bill1911 Parliament Act
In 1914, George V did take legal advice on withholding royal assent from the Government of Ireland Bill, a highly contentious piece of legislation that the Liberal government intended to push through parliament by means of the Parliament Act 1911.
Following a second general election in December, the Act was passed with the assent of the monarch, George V, who agreed to carry out H. H. Asquith's threat to create enough new Liberal peers to overcome the then Conservative majority in the Lords.

Scottish Militia Bill

Scottish Militia Bill 17081708last exercise of a veto
The last bill that was refused assent by the sovereign (on the advice of ministers) was the Scottish Militia Bill during Queen Anne's reign in 1708.
However, on 11 March 1708, Queen Anne withheld royal assent on the advice of her ministers for fear that the proposed militia would be disloyal.

Act of Parliament

ActActs of ParliamentActs
Once a bill has passed both Houses in an identical form, it receives final, formal examination by the Governor General, who gives it the royal assent.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Queen AnneAnnePrincess Anne
The last bill that was refused assent by the sovereign (on the advice of ministers) was the Scottish Militia Bill during Queen Anne's reign in 1708.
At first, Anne withheld royal assent to the act, but she granted it the following year when the Estates threatened to withhold supply, endangering Scottish support for England's wars.

National Assembly for Wales

Welsh AssemblyNational Assembly of WalesNational Assembly
Measures, which were the means by which the National Assembly for Wales passed legislation between 2006 and 2011, were assented to by the Queen by means of an Order in Council.
The Government of Wales Act 2006 received Royal Assent on 25 July 2006.

George IV of the United Kingdom

George IVKing George IVPrince Regent
Later Hanoverian monarchs attempted to restore royal control over legislation: George III and George IV both openly opposed Catholic Emancipation and asserted that to grant assent to a Catholic emancipation bill would violate the Coronation Oath, which required the sovereign to preserve and protect the established Church of England from Papal domination, and would grant rights to individuals who were in league with a foreign power which did not recognise their legitimacy.
The Lords Commissioners appointed by the letters patent, in the name of the King, then signified the granting of Royal Assent to a bill that became the Regency Act 1811.

Personal Rule

rule without parliamentrule without parliament for eleven yearsEleven Years' Tyranny
During the eleven years of personal rule that followed, Charles performed legally dubious actions such as raising taxes without Parliament's approval.
Once summoned, a parliament could take the opportunity to submit policy proposals to the monarch ("bills"), which would be expected to take precedence over ordinances if signed into law by the monarch, although (s)he was under no obligation to grant the Royal Assent to any such proposal.

Parliament of Northern Ireland

StormontStormont ParliamentNorthern Ireland Parliament
Between 1922 and 1972, bills passed by the Parliament of Northern Ireland were passed to the Governor of Northern Ireland for royal assent under the Government of Ireland Act of 1920, replacing the office of Lord Lieutenant.
The Sovereign was represented by the Governor (initially by the Lord Lieutenant), who granted royal assent to Acts of Parliament in Northern Ireland, but executive power rested with the Prime Minister, the leader of the largest party in the House of Commons.

Government of Ireland Act 1914

Third Home Rule BillHome Rule Act 1914Third Home Rule Act
In 1914, George V did take legal advice on withholding royal assent from the Government of Ireland Bill, a highly contentious piece of legislation that the Liberal government intended to push through parliament by means of the Parliament Act 1911.
Having been defeated a third time in the Lords, the Government used the provisions of the (new) Parliament Act to override the Lords and send it for Royal Assent.

Act of the National Assembly for Wales

Acts of the AssemblyActslegislate
Following the referendum held in March 2011, in which the majority vote for the assembly's law-making powers to be extended, measures were replaced by Acts of the Assembly.
Once a bill is introduced, there are four stages that need to be completed prior to the bill being submitted for royal assent.

Charles I of England

Charles IKing Charles IKing Charles
Charles I dissolved parliament in 1629, after it passed motions and bills critical of—and seeking to restrict—his arbitrary exercise of power.
The Act was coupled with a subsidy bill, and so to secure the latter, Charles grudgingly granted royal assent in February 1641.

Promulgation

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In some jurisdictions, royal assent is equivalent to promulgation, while in others that is a separate step.
Article 91 of the Spanish Constitution establishes that bills, upon being passed by the Cortes Generales, must be sanctioned (i.e., given royal assent) by the King of Spain within two weeks of their passing.

George I of Great Britain

George IKing George IKing George
The first Hanoverian monarch, George I, relied on his ministers to a greater extent than had previous monarchs.
At first Royal Assent was withheld, but the following year Anne capitulated to the wishes of the Estates and assent was granted to the bill, which became the Act of Security 1704.